Curriculum

K-12 FOREIGN LANGUAGE STANDARDS

Developed by

Foreign Language Standards Committee
Roland Urrutia Curriculum Coordinator
Leslie Davison Former K-5 Spanish Teacher
Basia Kaczkowski Summit High School
Mary Keeling Summit High School
Bethany Lambrecht Summit Middle School
Maggie Nicholson Summit Middle School
Tamara Peterson Silverthorne/Upper Blue Elementary School
Martie Semmer Breckenridge/Frisco/Summit Cove Elementary School
Kathy Swanson Summit High School

1996-1997/1997-1998

New Foreign Language Teachers Supporting These Standards
Melanie Chase Dillon Valley/Summit Cove Elementary School
Jane VanderBeek Summit High School

Adopted by Board of Education
February 3, 1998


FOREIGN LANGUAGE


MISSION

The Summit School District RE-1 K-12 Foreign Language program will better prepare individuals to be members of an increasingly complex, interrelated and global society.

 

RATIONALE

We believe it is necessary for Summit School District RE-1 to provide a K-12 Foreign Language program for the following reasons:

· To be prepared for the future in our global society, it is essential that Summit students develop and maintain proficiency in more than one language.
· To develop proficiency in more than one language, children need to begin language learning early.
· To improve relations with people from around the world, communication in other languages is imperative.
· To develop a foundation for true understanding and appreciation of international cultures, knowledge of other languages is critical.



BELIEFS

Knowledge of another language:

· Is attainable by all.
· Raises self-esteem.
· Creates a sense of belonging to an interrelated society.
· Increases opportunities in life and work.
· Helps produce citizens who contribute to humanity.
· Develops insights into the learner’s own language and culture.
· Enhances sensitivity to our culturally diverse society.

Foreign language study in early childhood:

· Expands children’s horizons to the world.
· Increases acceptance of cultural diversity.
· Not only enhances the elementary school curriculum but also is an integral part of it.
· Leads to greater proficiency in that foreign language.
· Facilitates learning additional languages throughout life.
· Consistently results in higher standardized test scores.
· Develops greater mental flexibility, creativity, and critical thinking skills.
· Is the optimum time because children are open to learning new things, lack inhibition, and more easily acquire foreign language skills.



SUMMIT SCHOOL DISTRICT RE-1
FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONTENT STANDARDS (DRAFT)
SUMMARY

Content Standard 1

COMMUNICATION
Students know how to communicate in languages other than English

Performance Standard 1.1: Students will engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.
Performance Standard 1.2: Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics.
Performance Standard 1.3: Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.

Content Standard 2

CULTURES
Students gain knowledge and understanding of other cultures

Performance Standard 2.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied.
Performance Standard 2.2: Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied.

Content Standard 3

CONNECTIONS
Students connect with other disciplines and acquire information.

Performance Standard 3.1: Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language.
Performance Standard 3.2: Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures.

Content Standard 4

COMPARISONS
Students develop insight into their own language and culture.

Performance Standard 4.1: Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own.
Performance Standard 4.2: Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

Content Standard 5

COMMUNITIES
Students participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world.

Performance Standard 5.1: Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.
Performance Standard 5.2: Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.

 

Glossary




Content Standard 1

COMMUNICATION
Students know how to communicate in languages other than English

RATIONALE
For American students, the ability to use and function in at least one other language in addition to English will become increasingly important in the rapidly shrinking, interdependent world of the 21st century. Many individuals in the business and economic communities have been calling upon the education system to prepare students with foreign language competence. At the same time, they also have warned us that being able to talk about the language, to describe its grammar, and to conjugate verbs will not be enough. In the 21st century, students must be able to speak, to read, and to comprehend both spoken and written language. They must be able to participate appropriately in face-to-face interaction with members of other societies, and they must also be able to interpret the concepts, ideas, and opinions expressed by members of these societies through their media and their literature. In order to function in a global society, students will benefit from being able to communicate in more than one language in their personal and/or professional lives.

1.1 Performance Standard. Students will engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators: At the indicated grade levels, students will…

K-2

1.1.A Greet others.
1.1.B Follow simple commands.
1.1.C Answer simple questions.
1.1.D Describe self in simple language.
1.1.E Demonstrate comprehensible pronunciation and intonation of frequently-used words and phrases.


3-6

1.1.A Exchange basic information which is important in their daily lives.
1.1.B Ask and answer basic age-appropriate questions.
1.1.C Express likes and dislikes regarding their immediate environment.
1.1.D Describe people and things in their immediate environment.
1.1.E Exchange basic age-appropriate conversation using learned vocabulary, phrases, and language systems.
1.1.F Interact with speakers of the target language.
1.1.G Use understandable pronunciation and intonation of learned words and phrases.


7-9

1.1.A Give and follow directions for carrying out a specific task, ask questions for clarification.
1.1.B Exchange information about themselves, personal events and experiences.
1.1.C Express opinions about people, activities and events both real and imaginative.
1.1.D Acquire information through interaction.
1.1.E Maintain brief face-to-face conversations on familiar topics.
1.1.F Express opinions and feelings in the present and simple future tense.
1.1.G Describe aspects of daily life.
1.1.H Share basic information relating to their lives.
1.1.I Ask for information and demonstrate comprehension.
1.1.J Demonstrate comprehensible pronunciation and intonation.


10-12

1.1.A Exchange information about past, current, or future events.
1.1.B Work in groups to develop and propose solutions to issues and problems.
1.1.C Share their analyses of authentic expository and literary texts.
1.1.D Exchange, support and discuss their opinions with peers and/or speakers of the target language on a variety of topics dealing with contemporary and historical issues
1.1.E Convey meaningful messages combining knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical structures.
1.1.F Produce pronunciation and intonation understandable to a native speaker of the target language.

 

1.2 Performance Standard : Students understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

1.2.A Comprehend the main idea of developmentally appropriate oral narratives, such as stories based on familiar themes.
1.2.B Interpret intonation and gestures from simple spoken language


3-6

1.2.A Derive simple meaning(s) from various listening sources to include short conversations, authentic listening sources such as Spanish speakers, videos, and audio cassettes.
1.2.B Identify people and objects in their environment based on oral and written description
1.2.C Comprehend and interpret brief written passages to include short personal notes, stories, and authentic readings.
1.2.D Comprehend and interpret main ideas and identify the principal characters of stories to include children’s literature.
1.2.E Recognize spoken and written cognates and common expressions.
1.2.F Infer meaning of unfamiliar written vocabulary from context.


7-9

1.2.A Comprehend and interpret written and spoken messages.
1.2.B Understand the main idea and significant details on familiar topics.
1.2.C Comprehend and interpret the main ideas and themes in selected readings.
1.2.D Demonstrate comprehension of texts both written and spoken.
1.2.E Identify main ideas of oral and written texts.


10-12

1.2.A Demonstrate an understanding of the main ideas and significant details of discussions and presentations on past, current, or future events.
1.2.B Demonstrate an understanding of the principal elements of non-fiction articles and authentic literary texts.
1.2.C Demonstrate an increasing understanding of idiomatic expressions and grammatical constructions particular to the studied language.

 

1.3 Performance Standard. Students present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

1.3.A Sing short songs and recite poems in the target language.
1.3.B Demonstrate comprehensible pronunciation and intonation of frequently-used words and phrases.

3-6

1.3.A Prepare illustrated stories about activities or events in their environment and share with an audience, such as the class.
1.3.B Give short, informal presentations that provide information concerning their immediate lives.
1.3.C Write guided, age-appropriate assignments (e.g. letters) using learned vocabulary, phrases, and language systems.
1.3.D Use understandable pronunciation and intonation of learned words and phrases.


7-9

1.3.A Present skits and dialogues.
1.3.B Write phrases, short compositions, letters, reports, skits and dialogues.
1.3.C Use comprehensible pronunciation and grammatical structures to express a topic.
1.3.D Describe elementary aspects of personal life.
1.3.E Write phrases, compositions, letters.
1.3.F Present information on personal life.
1.3.G Create and present skits.


10-12

1.3.A Perform scenes from literary texts or videos, recite poems, and sing contemporary and traditional songs.
1.3.B Create stories and poems, short plays, or skits based on personal experiences and exposure to themes, ideas, and perspectives from the target culture.
1.3.C Summarize the content of an authentic article or literary text.
1.3.D Write letters for personal and business purposes.
1.3.E Write essays describing or analyzing a topic.
1.3.F Prepare and present a research-based analysis of a theme related to the target culture.




Content Standard 2

CULTURES
Students gain knowledge and understanding of other cultures

RATIONALE
True competence in a foreign language cannot be attained without simultaneous development of the awareness of the cultures in which the language is spoken, because a language and its cultures are inseparable. The study of another language enables students to understand a different culture on its own terms. The rich interconnections between the culture that is lived and the language that is spoken can only be realized by those who possess a knowledge of both. American students need to develop an awareness of other people’s world view, of their unique way of life, and of the patterns of behavior which order their world, as well as an awareness of their contributions to the world at large and the solutions they offer to the common problems of humankind. It is essential for students at all levels to develop an understanding of the cultures in which the studied language is spoken and to function in a culturally appropriate manner.

2.1 Performance Standard. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between the practices and perspectives of the culture studied.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

2.1.A Use appropriate oral expressions and gestures for greetings, leave taking, and familiar or common classroom interactions.


3-6

2.1.A Recognize appropriate language and social behavior in various settings such as family, school, and community.
2.1.B Begin to use basic appropriate language and social behavior when interacting with different groups of people such as family, friends, school personnel, community helpers, etc.
2.1.C Participate in age appropriate cultural activities such as games, songs, birthday celebrations, story telling, and dramatizations.


7-9

2.1.A Observe, identify, and discuss comparisons of behavior/customs typical of their peer group, i.e. family, school and social life, and the educational system.
2.1.B Use culturally appropriate language and gestures to interact with peers and adults.
2.1.C Learn about cultural practices such as pastimes, sports, and entertainment.


10-12

2.1.A Interact in a variety of cultural contexts that reflect activities within the culture studied, using appropriate language and gestures.
2.1.B Learn about and participate in age-appropriate cultural practices, such as games, and dances.
2.1.C Identify, analyze, and discuss various patterns of behavior or interaction typical of the culture studied.
2.1.D Identify and discuss connections between cultural beliefs and values and socially approved behavioral practices.
2.1.E Identify insights into their own culture through studying the components and behavioral practices of another culture.
2.1.F Learn how their own culture is viewed by the people whose language they are studying.

2.2 Performance Standard. Students demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the products and perspectives of the culture studied.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

2.2.A Participate in age-appropriate cultural activities such as games and songs.
2.2.B Identify various tangible products of the studied culture(s) such as foods, toys, dress, types of dwellings, and artifacts.


3-6

2.2.A Observe and identify basic everyday cultural characteristics and customs of the studied culture(s).
2.2.B Identify traditional cultural characteristics versus contemporary cultural characteristics.
2.2.C Recognize and experience expressive products of the culture, such as children’s songs, selections from children’s literature, and samples of artwork enjoyed or produced by their peer group in the cultures studied.
2.2.D Recognize simple themes, ideas, attitudes, and/or values of the target culture(s).


7-9

2.2.A Identify, experience or read about, and discuss the arts and other products of the culture, such as popular music/dance, magazines and books, paintings, architectural structures.
2.2.B Search for, identify, and investigate the function of products of the foreign culture found within their homes and community.


10-12

2.2.A Identify, discuss, and analyze social, economic and political institutions of the culture being studied.
2.2.B Experience, discuss and analyze expressive products of the culture such as: music, dance, works of art, architectural structures and various literary genres. Explore the effect of these products on the larger community.
2.2.C Identify, analyze, and evaluate themes, ideas, and perspectives related to the products being studied.
2.2.D Recognize the significance of the contributions of the studied cultures to the world community.




Content Standard 3

CONNECTIONS
Students connect with other disciplines and acquire information.

RATIONALE
Foreign language learning can expand the educational experience of all students by combining with other disciplines in the school curriculum either formally or informally. Knowledge is power; reinforcing subject areas through foreign language study and expanding student access to information and increasing student access to information through the use of foreign language will increase student ability to “know and do.” Using a foreign language to acquire information empowers students with knowledge, no matter the topic or discipline. It can also provide learners with skills and interests that will look beyond the limits of their formal educational experiences.

In today’s society, access to information takes on a variety of forms and occurs both in and out of school. Students may watch news releases from foreign countries, listen to interviews with foreign nationals before or during the translation, or access all kinds of information stored around the world through Internet connections in their homes. Classroom instruction prepares students to access the variety of sources in the other language. They may acquire information through technology, personal interviews, newspapers, magazines, dictionaries and encyclopedias.

With the conscious effort to connect with other parts of the students’ academic lives, the foreign language curriculum opens doors to information and experiences which will enrich the students’ entire school and life experiences. Those connections may flow from other areas to the foreign language classroom to add unique experiences and insights to the rest of the curriculum.

3.1 Performance Standard. Students reinforce and further their knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

3.1.A Participate in and contribute to grades K-2 content-based activities to include language arts, math, social studies, and science concepts.


3-6

3.1.A Participate in and contribute to grades 3-6 content-based activities to include language arts, math, social studies, and science concepts.


7-9

3.1.A Comprehend written information or short videos in the target language on topics being studied in other classes, such as geography, physical science, environmental studies, math, U.S. history, communications, etc.
3.1.B Present in the target language, orally and/or written, on a topic being studied in other classes.


10-12

3.1.A Discuss topics from other school subjects in the target language, including political and historical concepts, worldwide health issues, and environmental concerns.
3.1.B Acquire information from a variety of sources written in the target language about a topic being studied in other school subjects.
3.1.C Combine information form other school subjects with information available in the foreign language in order to complete activities in the foreign language classroom.

 

3.2 Performance Standard. Students acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

3.2.A Participate in activities which allow learners to derive simple meaning from communications (e.g. folk tales, short stories, letters from peer group in a studied culture, poems, and/or songs) that are intended for native speakers of this age group.


3-6

3.2.A Demonstrate an understanding, through student translation and/or retelling, on a basic level a variety of media (e.g. folk tales, short stories, letters from peer group in a target culture, poems, and/or songs) that are intended for native speakers of this age group.


7-9

3.2.A Use sources intended for speakers of the target language to acquire information reflecting various viewpoints.


10-12

3.2.A Use a variety of sources intended for speakers of the target language to prepare reports.





Content Standard 4

COMPARISONS
Students develop insight into their own language and culture.

RATIONALE
Students benefit from the language learning experience by discovering different and similar patterns among language systems and cultures. The acquisition of a second language draws attention to how the two languages and cultures interact. This interaction causes students to reflect on the patterns, and thus gain insight into their own language and culture. This exploration of the new language helps students to frame issues about their own world view while investigating another.

4.1 Performance Standard. Students demonstrate understanding of the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators: At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

4.1.A Distinguish between spoken English and the language studied.
4.1.B Recognize the written language of the language studied versus English.


3-6

4.1.A Identify and find examples of word borrowing from one language to another.
4.1.B Recognize simple characteristics of the English language system when compared and contrasted to simple characteristics of the target language system.


7-9

4.1.A Demonstrate their knowledge of English grammar rules as they learn different and similar patterns in the target language, e.g. placement of adjectives, verb conjugations.
4.1.B Be able to define and identify idioms.
4.1.C Analyze an idiom in English and its relationship to American culture.
4.1.D Use English vocabulary skills to translate cognates.
4.1.E Demonstrate there is more than one way to express ideas across languages.
4.1.F Demonstrate increased vocabulary in both languages.


10-12

4.1.A Compare and contrast linguistic elements of English and the target language.
4.1.B Demonstrate increased vocabularies in both languages.
4.1.C Recognize that cognates have the same as well as different meanings among languages.
4.1.D Demonstrate an awareness that there are phrases and idioms that do not translate directly from one language to another.
4.1.E Analyze elements of the target language, such as time and tense, and comparable linguistic elements in English, and conjecture about how languages use forms to express time and tense relationships.

 

4.2 Performance Standard. Students demonstrate understanding of the concept of culture through comparisons of the cultures studied and their own.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

4.2.A Compare cultural traditions, celebrations, and daily lives of peoples of the studied language and its cultures with their own culture.

3-6

4.2.A Recognize cultural artifacts (e.g. symbols, advertisements, objects, songs, and/or rhymes, etc.) indicative of student’s own culture and artifacts representative of the studied language and culture(s).
4.2.B Identify, in relation to their familiar experiences, similar and different patterns of behavior/values regarding traditions, celebrations, and daily life of the target language and its culture(s).


7-9

4.2.A Identify cultural beliefs and perspectives of people in their own culture and the target culture relating to family, school, work, and play.
4.2.B Explore cultural traditions and celebrations that exist in both cultures.
4.2.C Compare and contrast art and music from the culture studied with that of the American culture.


10-12

4.2.A Analyze the relationship between the values and the behavioral practices in the target culture and compare and contrast these with their own.
4.2.B Analyze the relationship between the products and values in the cultures studied and compare and contrast these with their own.
4.2.C Identify and analyze cultural values as reflected in a variety of literary genres.
4.2.D Compare and contrast the treatment of current issues in both the culture of the United States and the target culture.
4.2.E Analyze the other culture’s perceptions of the United States in the world arena.
4.2.F Evaluate the effectiveness of communication based on cultural elements.





Content Standard 5

COMMUNITIES
Students participate in multilingual communities at home and around the world.

RATIONALE
The shift from a manufacturing-based economy to one increasingly based on information, technology, and service reflects a changing America. As businesses expand domestic and international markets, American citizens need to be proficient in English and in other languages. These skills allow Americans to access directly knowledge and information generated by other countries and cultures and allow for face-to-face negotiations in political, business, and personal dealings. This proficiency is developed and sustained by the opportunity to learn and use a language over a long period of time. Moreover, students are highly motivated to excel in their study of a second language when they see immediate applications for the skills they learn. They may find their ability to communicate in other languages better prepares them for school and community service projects, enables them to expand their employment opportunities both at home and abroad, and allows them to pursue their own interests for personal benefit. As a result of their ability to communicate in other languages, students realize the interdependence of people throughout the world. Furthermore, and equally as important beyond the ability to communicate in other languages, is the ultimate step: the ability to participate successfully in multilingual communities at home and around the world.

5.1 Performance Standard. Students use the language both within and beyond the school setting.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

5.1.A Participate in a class or school presentation or community program.
5.1.B Exchange information about self and topics of interest with speakers of the language studied via face-to-face conversations and/or letters, video tapes, etc.


3-6

5.1.A Identify professions which require proficiency in another language.
5.1.B Exchange information about family, school events, and celebrations in person or via letters, e-mail, audio or video tapes.
5.1.C Perform for a school or community celebration.
5.1.D Write and illustrate messages (e.g. information, stories) to others.


7-9

5.1.A Participate in club activities that benefit the school/community.
5.1.B Write and illustrate stories to present to others.
5.1.C Perform for a school or community celebration.


10-12

5.1.A Communicate orally or in writing with members of the target culture regarding topics of personal interest, community, or world concern.
5.1.B Interact with members of the local community who are involved in a variety of professions to hear how they use the language in their work.
5.1.C Participate in a career exploration or community work projects which require proficiency in the language.
5.1.D Use community resources to research a topic related to culture and/or language study.
5.1.E Participate in activities which benefit the school or community.
5.1.F Perform for a school or community celebration.

5.2 Performance Standard. Students show evidence of becoming life-long learners by using the language for personal enjoyment and enrichment.

Grade-Level Progress Indicators. At the indicated grade levels, students will…


K-2

5.2.A Continue to view/listen and/or read a variety of media, i.e. TV, books, CD-ROMs, beyond the school setting.
5.2.B Listen to music, sing songs, or play instruments from the target language and culture(s) both at school and beyond.


3-6

5.2.A Identify reasons for personal enjoyment and enrichment after reading materials and/or viewing/listening to media from the studied language and culture(s).
5.2.B Demonstrate a desire (i.e. anecdotal comments) to continue learning the studied language or demonstrate motivation to learn an additional language.


7-9

5.2.A Demonstrate the ability to use various resources (e.g. the Internet) to obtain information on topics of personal interest.
5.2.B Use a variety of media from the language and culture for entertainment.
5.2.C Listen to music, sing songs, or play musical instruments from the target culture.


10-12

5.2.A Demonstrate the ability to use various resources in the language to obtain information on topics of personal interest.
5.2.B Play games, listen to music, dance dances, or sing songs from the target culture.
5.2.C Read and/or use various media from the language and culture for entertainment or personal growth.
5.2.D Establish and/or maintain interpersonal relations with speakers of the language.
5.2.E Attend cultural events or view them using technology.



GLOSSARY

AGE-APPROPRIATE Suitable for a student’s chronological age, which may or may not be a good indicator of the student’s mental and social development.
AUDIENCES Those with whom a student of a foreign language uses the language; they include listeners of the spoken language—such as peers, parents, teachers, or community members—and readers of the written language.
AUTHENTIC MATERIALS Materials that exist naturally in the culture of the target language, as opposed to materials developed exclusively for students to use in the study of a foreign language.
COGNATES Words that are similar in two different languages, such as nación in Spanish and nation in English. “False cognates,” on the other hand are words that appear to be similar, but which in fact have different meanings, such as French sensible, which does not mean sensible, but rather sensitive.
CONTENT STANDARD A broad statement of what students should know and be able to do as a result of their study of a content area.
CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION Foreign language instruction is “content based” when students use one of the traditional academic areas to learn the language. For example, students may study geography, but in Spanish rather than English, thereby increasing their knowledge both of Spanish and of geography.
CULTURAL ASPECTS Attributes of the culture, such as dress, religion, holiday customs, and ways people address each other.
CULTURAL CONTEXT A situation unique to a culture; the total environment of a culture, including its history, language, art traditions, system of government, economy, etc.
CULTURAL NORMS The expectations of a culture or an aspect of a culture. For example, it is a cultural norm in the United States to say “Thank you” upon receiving a compliment, while in many other countries, this would imply “Yes, I know.” Instead these countries use some variation of “You are very kind.”
DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE Suitable for a student’s “mental” and/or “social” age, as distinct from his or her chronological age (see “Age Appropriate”).
DISCIPLINE Subject area.
GRADE LEVEL PROGRESS INDICATORS Within a performance standard, more detailed statements of what students at a particular grade level range should know and be able to do as a result of their study of an academic area; typically, each performance standard will break down into four grade levels (e.g. K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12), each of which will have two to five student proficiencies.
INTERACT To exchange with another person or persons in a reciprocal manner, such as by having a conversation.
MID-LEVEL A more advanced level of language proficiency in which students begin to construct their own utterances and responses from a wider range of choices of verb tenses, grammatical constructs, and vocabulary.
NORMAL RATE OF SPEECH The rate of speech of native speakers of the language.
NOVICE A beginning level of language proficiency, whose range of choices in the language is limited, such as to present tense only or to rote, memorized phrases and responses.
PERFORMANCE STANDARD Within a content standard, a slightly more specific statement of what students should know and be able to do as a result of their study of an academic area; typically, each content standard will break down into two to five performance standards.
PERSPECTIVES Points of view based on cultural background.
PROFICIENT An advanced level of language proficiency in which students draw from a very broad range of vocabulary, sentence structures, and verb tenses; at this level of proficiency, students can communicate almost any idea or thought in the target language that than can communicate in their native language.
PURPOSES A “variety of purposes” in this context would include, but not be limited to, casual conversation, formal presentations, academic discussions, and various social situations.
SYNTHESIZE To put parts together into wholes.
TARGET CULTURE The culture of the country or countries in which the target language is spoken as the primary means of discourse.
TARGET LANGUAGE The language under study.

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