Curriculum

K-12 MUSIC STANDARDS


MUSIC

Developed by

Roland Urrutia Curriculum Coordinator
Becky Barnes Silverthorne/Upper Blue Elementary
Donna Clark Summit Cove/Dillon Valley Elementary
Wendy Crowe Summit Middle School
Cathie Hill Summit Middle School
Paula Pearcey Breckenridge/Frisco Elementary

1996-1997

 

Adopted by Board of Education
January 13, 1998


Standards:

1. Students perform a varied repertoire of music.
2. Students read and notate music.
3. Students improvise and compose using elements of music.
4. Students listen to, analyze, evaluate, and describe music.
5. Students understand the connection of music to the other arts, to disciplines outside the arts, and to history and culture.

Performance Standards by grade level:

 K - 1

 3 - 5

 6 - 8

 9 - 12


SUMMIT SCHOOL DISTRICT RE-1

ARTS CURRICULUM - PHILOSOPHY

 

Art is a special way of knowing, and a way in which students explore and understand their world. An education in the Arts fosters cognitive, affective and motor development; increases understanding of cultures and cultural context; and provides unique opportunities to enhance---and be enhanced by---other components of the curriculum.

Cognitive Development. The Arts facilitate the development of the higher-order thinking skills of application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, and tap into multiple intelligences. The Arts provide a catalyst for the development of language and vocabulary skills, increase visual and tactile perception, and develop student knowledge about shapes, colors, patterns, classifications, and concepts. The Arts help develop student abilities to observe, discriminate, remember, interpret, make decisions, solve problems, compare and make value judgments, extrapolate findings to other situations, and apply known information to new settings. The Arts help students develop non-verbal thinking skills, engage the student’s imagination, and foster flexible ways of thinking. Through a study of the Arts, students explore and expand their personal potential to think creatively, to solve problems with ingenuity, and to respond to events and experiences with confidence and enthusiasm. Through the Arts, students understand that they can affect and improve their environment, and that they can shape their individual lives, their communities, and their nation.

Affective Development. Excellence in Art education requires that students appreciate that learning in the Arts is often hard work and demands effort, commitment, and persistence. The development of self-confidence is a result of the disciplined efforts necessary to achieve excellence in the Arts. The Arts help students develop social skills, social knowledge, and the capacity and motivation to derive the benefits of cooperative learning situations. Education in the Arts not only provides needed creative and positive outlets for passion, intellect, the human spirit, and emotion, but is also essential in the development of a complete individual. The Arts expand student opportunities leading to self-actualization.

Motor Development and Cultural Understanding. Serious practice in the Arts develops both fine and gross motor skills. Students in the Arts learn the power of sensory images and body movements and how they have influenced human behavior and the values and aspiration of societies throughout the ages. Through an education in the Arts, students discover their heritage and learn to understand not only the culture and values of the society in which they live, but also that the Arts connect cultures throughout the world through a common means of expression. Through a study of the Arts, students acquire knowledge of historical and cultural development and come to understand their place in time and history. The Arts, therefore, link the present to the past and the students’ individual culture to the global society.

Other Curriculum Components. The Arts are deeply embedded in every facet of existence. The skills learned through a study of the Arts can be applied throughout life. Because the Arts are simultaneously a process and a product, education in the Arts involves not only creating and performing, but also perceiving and analyzing. These four processes promote an understanding of cultural and historical context. The Arts, therefore, are a core component of the curriculum, not a fringe part of it. Summit School District RE-1 is committed to the view that Arts education is an integral part of learning and is not somehow a discrete, unconnected part of the learning experiences of our students. These learning experiences sometimes require specific Art disciplines to be presented discretely, and at other times to be presented in an interdisciplinary manner. Sometimes the Arts are used to enhance other areas of the curriculum, and other times the other areas are used to enhance the Arts curriculum.

With this as our philosophy, the following are our beliefs:

 

BELIEFS REGARDING ARTS EDUCATION

· Everyone can learn and learn from the Arts.

· Everyone wants and needs the Arts in his/her life.

· Learning in the Arts never ends.

· Each individual has his/her own rate of learning in the Arts.

· Teaching and learning in the Arts is a complex process which involves the whole person.

· Learning and teaching in the Arts are the collective responsibilities of the community including students, parents, school staff, and citizens.

· The Arts education system has a responsibility to develop contributing citizens.

· The study of the Arts promotes respect and self-worth.

· The Arts promote a sense of belonging and security which are critical attributes to personal success.

· The Arts contribute to the development of many skills for life.

· In the Arts, high expectations are necessary to achieve results.

· A study of the Arts enhances vision which leads to positive change.




COMMON MUSIC CURRICULUM STANDARD STRANDS
GRADES P-12

· Technique
· Polyphony
· Musical Elements—Performing
· Ensemble
· Genre
· Response to Conductor Cues
· Creating Music
· Arranging and Improvising
· Tone Color
· Symbols and Terminology
· Melodies and Rhythms
· Listening Skills
· Evaluation of Performance
· Audience Involvement
· Music and the Arts
· Music and Other Disciplines
· Music, Culture, and Era


GRADE-LEVEL PROFICIENCY STANDARDS AND CURRICULAR STRATEGY ASSESSMENT CODES

CL Cooperative Learning
D Demonstration
P Performance
PR Project
T Test
TO Teacher Observation

MUSICAL ART
STUDENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
GRADES K-2

At the K-2 grade level, students will:

1. Demonstrate proper technique while singing and playing.
2. Sing and play music in multiple parts.
3. Sing and play simple rhythmic, melodic, and chordal patterns in tempo.
4. Sing, play, and move to a varied repertoire of music representing diverse style and time periods.
5. Appropriately respond to conductor’s cues.
6. Create music and movement to accompany literature.
7. Arrange and improvise short songs, instrumental, and movement pieces.
8. Use a variety of sound sources when composing.
9. Identify musical symbols and traditional music terms.
10. Identify and/or read simple melodic and rhythmic patterns.
11. Identify technical and/or expressive qualities in music.
12. Identify and examine criteria for evaluation of their personal and formal performances.
13. Recognize audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
14. Describe ways in which music and the other arts portray similar emotions, events, scenes, and ideas.
15. Integrate music and other classroom studies.
16. Listen to and identify musical works from various cultures, settings, and time periods.

MUSICAL ART
STUDENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
GRADES 3-5

At the 3-5 grade level, students will:

1. Demonstrate proper technique while singing and playing.
2. Sing and play music in multiple parts.
3. Independently perform rhythmic, melodic and chordal patterns in an ensemble setting.
4. Sing, play, and move to a varied repertoire of music representing diverse style and time periods.
5. Appropriately respond to conductor’s cues.
6. Create music and movement to embellish literature.
7. Arrange and improvise short songs, instrumental, and movement pieces.
8. Use a variety of sound sources when composing.
9. Identify musical symbols and traditional music terms.
10. Identify and/or read simple melodic and rhythmic patterns.
11. Analyze and describe technical or expressive qualities in music.
12. Identify, examine, and establish criteria for evaluation of their personal and formal performances.
13. Demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
14. Compare ways in which music and the other arts portray similar emotions, events, scenes, and ideas.
15. Integrate music and other classroom studies.
16. Analyze musical works from various cultures, settings, and time periods.

MUSICAL ART
STUDENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
GRADES 6-8

At the 6-8 grade level, students will:

1. Demonstrate proper vocal or instrumental technique appropriate for the adolescent.
2. Perform music in multiple parts while using proper techniques.
3. Independently perform rhythmic, melodic and chordal patterns in an ensemble setting.
4. Identify and reproduce a variety of styles of music.
5. Appropriately respond to conductor’s cues.
6. Create simple melodies and accompaniments (rhythmic and harmonic) for live or recorded performances.
7. Compose using a variety of sound sources.
8. Identify and/or read simple melodic patterns responding to common musical terms and indications.
9. Identify and read increasingly complex melodic and rhythmic patterns.
10. Identify aurally and describe uses of the elements of music in various genres and styles.
11. Identify, examine, and establish criteria for evaluating musical performances and compositions.
12. Demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
13. Compare ways in which music and other art forms describe similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas.
14. Identify and explore ways in which music is interrelated to the other disciplines.
15. Identify aural examples of music and characteristics of music from varying cultures and historical periods.

MUSICAL ART
STUDENT PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
GRADES 9-12

At the 9-12 grade level, students will:

1. Demonstrate proper vocal or instrumental technique while performing.
2. Perform level three to five compositions demonstrating proper ensemble techniques.
3. Perform level three to five compositions demonstrating precision in specified elements of music.
4. Perform level three to five compositions with appropriate stylistic interpretation.
5. Appropriately respond to conductor’s cues.
6. Write complex four-part compositions.
7. Perform level three to five compositions using proper improvisational techniques.
8. Compose using a variety of sound sources.
9. Perform level three to five compositions with appropriate reading and notating skills.
10. Demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
11. Relate events in art and culture with historical events in the context of a time table of history.



K-2 MUSICAL ARTS MATRIX
I. COLLABORATIVE CONTRIBUTORS
Who use effective leadership and group skills to foster, develop, and sustain supportive relationships with and between others in culturally and linguistically diverse work, community and family settings.
II. SELF-DIRECTED ACHIEVERS
Who formulate positive core values in order to create a vision for their future, set priorities and goals, create options and take responsibility for pursuing these goals, and monitor and evaluate their progress.
III. PERCEPTIVE THINKERS
Who develop and use multiple frames of reference to identify, assess, integrate, and apply available information and resources in reasoning, decision-making, and complex problem solving.
IV. ADAPTABLE PROBLEM SOLVERS
Who anticipate, assess, and resolve the problems and challenges that accompany the rapidly changing political, economic, environmental, and social conditions of modern life.
V. CULTURALLY AWARE INDIVIDUALS
Who utilize knowledge of past, present and evolving cultures to show respect for, understanding of, and sensitivity to others and who have an appreciation for cultural diversity and interdependence.
VI. INVOLVED CITIZENS
Who take the initiative to contribute their time, energies, and talents to improve the welfare of themselves and others and the quality of life in their local and global environments by making environmentally responsible decisions.
VII. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS
Who clearly share ideas and feelings orally, in writing and artistically, and who can understand and evaluate the ideas and feelings of others.
VIII. QUALITY PRODUCERS
Who create intellectual, artistic and practical products which reflect originality, high quality and the use of advanced technology.

ICollaborative Contributors IISelf-Directed Achievers IIIPerceptive Thinkers IVAdaptable Problem Solvers VCulturally Aware Individuals VIInvolved Citizens VIIEffective Communica-tors VIIIQuality Producers
1. Technique
2. Polyphony
3. Musical Elements—Performing
4. Ensemble
5. Genre
6. Response to Conductor Cues
7. Creating Music
8. Arranging and Improvising
9. Tone Color
10. Symbols and Terminology
11. Melodies and Rhythms
12. Listening Skills
13. Evaluation of Performance
14. Audience Involvement
15. Music and the Arts
16. Music and Other Disciplines
17. Music, Culture, and Era


3-5 MUSICAL ARTS MATRIX

I. COLLABORATIVE CONTRIBUTORS
Who use effective leadership and group skills to foster, develop, and sustain supportive relationships with and between others in culturally and linguistically diverse work, community and family settings.
II. SELF-DIRECTED ACHIEVERS
Who formulate positive core values in order to create a vision for their future, set priorities and goals, create options and take responsibility for pursuing these goals, and monitor and evaluate their progress.
III. PERCEPTIVE THINKERS
Who develop and use multiple frames of reference to identify, assess, integrate, and apply available information and resources in reasoning, decision-making, and complex problem solving.
IV. ADAPTABLE PROBLEM SOLVERS
Who anticipate, assess, and resolve the problems and challenges that accompany the rapidly changing political, economic, environmental, and social conditions of modern life.
V. CULTURALLY AWARE INDIVIDUALS
Who utilize knowledge of past, present and evolving cultures to show respect for, understanding of, and sensitivity to others and who have an appreciation for cultural diversity and interdependence.
VI. INVOLVED CITIZENS
Who take the initiative to contribute their time, energies, and talents to improve the welfare of themselves and others and the quality of life in their local and global environments by making environmentally responsible decisions.
VII. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS
Who clearly share ideas and feelings orally, in writing and artistically, and who can understand and evaluate the ideas and feelings of others.
VIII. QUALITY PRODUCERS
Who create intellectual, artistic and practical products which reflect originality, high quality and the use of advanced technology.

ICollaborative Contributors IISelf-Directed Achievers IIIPerceptive Thinkers IVAdaptable Problem Solvers VCulturally Aware Individuals VIInvolved Citizens VIIEffective Communica-tors VIIIQuality Producers
1. Technique
2. Polyphony
3. Musical Elements—Performing
4. Ensemble
5. Genre
6. Response to Conductor Cues
7. Creating Music
8. Arranging and Improvising
9. Tone Color
10. Symbols and Terminology
11. Melodies and Rhythms
12. Listening Skills
13. Evaluation of Performance
14. Audience Involvement
15. Music and the Arts
16. Music and Other Disciplines
17. Music, Culture, and Era
6-8 MUSICAL ARTS MATRIX
I. COLLABORATIVE CONTRIBUTORS
Who use effective leadership and group skills to foster, develop, and sustain supportive relationships with and between others in culturally and linguistically diverse work, community and family settings.
II. SELF-DIRECTED ACHIEVERS
Who formulate positive core values in order to create a vision for their future, set priorities and goals, create options and take responsibility for pursuing these goals, and monitor and evaluate their progress.
III. PERCEPTIVE THINKERS
Who develop and use multiple frames of reference to identify, assess, integrate, and apply available information and resources in reasoning, decision-making, and complex problem solving.
IV. ADAPTABLE PROBLEM SOLVERS
Who anticipate, assess, and resolve the problems and challenges that accompany the rapidly changing political, economic, environmental, and social conditions of modern life.
V. CULTURALLY AWARE INDIVIDUALS
Who utilize knowledge of past, present and evolving cultures to show respect for, understanding of, and sensitivity to others and who have an appreciation for cultural diversity and interdependence.
VI. INVOLVED CITIZENS
Who take the initiative to contribute their time, energies, and talents to improve the welfare of themselves and others and the quality of life in their local and global environments by making environmentally responsible decisions.
VII. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS
Who clearly share ideas and feelings orally, in writing and artistically, and who can understand and evaluate the ideas and feelings of others.
VIII. QUALITY PRODUCERS
Who create intellectual, artistic and practical products which reflect originality, high quality and the use of advanced technology.

ICollaborative Contributors IISelf-Directed Achievers IIIPerceptive Thinkers IVAdaptable Problem Solvers VCulturally Aware Individuals VIInvolved Citizens VIIEffective Communica-tors VIIIQuality Producers
1. Technique
2. Polyphony
3. Musical Elements—Performing
4. Ensemble
5. Genre
6. Response to Conductor Cues
7. Creating Music
8. Arranging and Improvising
9. Tone Color
10. Symbols and Terminology
11. Melodies and Rhythms
12. Listening Skills
13. Evaluation of Performance
14. Audience Involvement
15. Music and the Arts
16. Music and Other Disciplines
17. Music, Culture, and Era
9-12 MUSICAL ARTS MATRIX
I. COLLABORATIVE CONTRIBUTORS
Who use effective leadership and group skills to foster, develop, and sustain supportive relationships with and between others in culturally and linguistically diverse work, community and family settings.
II. SELF-DIRECTED ACHIEVERS
Who formulate positive core values in order to create a vision for their future, set priorities and goals, create options and take responsibility for pursuing these goals, and monitor and evaluate their progress.
III. PERCEPTIVE THINKERS
Who develop and use multiple frames of reference to identify, assess, integrate, and apply available information and resources in reasoning, decision-making, and complex problem solving.
IV. ADAPTABLE PROBLEM SOLVERS
Who anticipate, assess, and resolve the problems and challenges that accompany the rapidly changing political, economic, environmental, and social conditions of modern life.
V. CULTURALLY AWARE INDIVIDUALS
Who utilize knowledge of past, present and evolving cultures to show respect for, understanding of, and sensitivity to others and who have an appreciation for cultural diversity and interdependence.
VI. INVOLVED CITIZENS
Who take the initiative to contribute their time, energies, and talents to improve the welfare of themselves and others and the quality of life in their local and global environments by making environmentally responsible decisions.
VII. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATORS
Who clearly share ideas and feelings orally, in writing and artistically, and who can understand and evaluate the ideas and feelings of others.
VIII. QUALITY PRODUCERS
Who create intellectual, artistic and practical products which reflect originality, high quality and the use of advanced technology.

ICollaborative Contributors IISelf-Directed Achievers IIIPerceptive Thinkers IVAdaptable Problem Solvers VCulturally Aware Individuals VIInvolved Citizens VIIEffective Communica-tors VIIIQuality Producers
1. Technique
2. Polyphony
3. Musical Elements—Performing
4. Ensemble
5. Genre
6. Response to Conductor Cues
7. Creating Music
8. Arranging and Improvising
9. Tone Color
10. Symbols and Terminology
11. Melodies and Rhythms
12. Listening Skills
13. Evaluation of Performance
14. Audience Involvement
15. Music and the Arts
16. Music and Other Disciplines
17. Music, Culture, and Era



Content Standard 1
Students perform a varied repertoire of music

Rationale
Performing, creating, and responding to music are the fundamental music processes in which humans engage. Students, particularly at the elementary grade levels, learn by doing. Singing, playing instruments, moving to music, and creating music enable them to acquire musical skills and knowledge that can be developed in no other way. Performing in ensembles requires students to develop skills in working musically with others. Students self esteem is enhanced through group participation while students learn the enjoyment and self satisfaction which result from musical performance. Performing a varied repertoire of music at the elementary level develops the positive attitude toward the musical arts which is a critical first step in viewing music as a lifelong and pleasurable experience. As students expand their array of musical literature, they develop an acceptance of differences in musical style and begin to improve in their musical performance skills.

At the secondary level, musical performance provides students with rewarding musical experiences and valuable insights. The music they perform often becomes an integral part of their personal musical repertoire. At the secondary level, musical performance enables students to become creatively involved with music. Performance provides a basis for a rich and satisfying life through the enjoyment of music. Students at the secondary level continue to learn the importance of attendance, following directions, teamwork and dedication as critical attributes of musical performance. Leadership skills are also developed through the modeling of effective performance of the elements of music.

Performance Standard 1.1 (Technique)
Students demonstrate proper technique while singing and playing.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:
K-2
· Demonstrate “singers posture” while sitting or standing.
· Use breath control to support sound.
· Correctly articulate consonant and vowel sounds.
· Discover and demonstrate awareness of vocal production by differentiating between singing/ shouting/ speaking voices; between high and low voices; and through the utilization of head voice.
· Play non-pitched (triangles, maracas, wood blocks, etc.) and pitched instruments (xylophones, metal, glocks, etc.) correctly by using proper techniques.
· Use appropriate stage presence and focus in rehearsal and performance environments.

3-5
· Demonstrate “singers posture” while sitting or standing.
· Use breath control to support sound.
· Correctly articulate consonant and vowel sounds.
· Consistently use a pure tone and head voice while singing.
· Work toward pitch accuracy through proper vocal technique.
· Play a pitched or non-pitched instrument according to the specific method for the particular instrument.
· Have concentrated focus during rehearsal and performance.
· Demonstrate animation during performance ( i.e. “bright eyes”).
· Use appropriate stage presence and focus in rehearsal and performance.
· Express the mood of the piece of music in practice and in performance.

Students demonstrate proper vocal or instrumental technique appropriate for the adolescent.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8 (band and choir students)
· Consistently demonstrate correct posture while singing and playing instruments.
· Consistently demonstrate correct hand and embouchure position while playing instruments.
· Consistently demonstrate correct head and mouth position while singing.
· Consistently use correct word pronunciation and diction while singing.

Students demonstrate proper vocal or instrumental technique while performing.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Perform solo literature demonstrating proper technique.
· Perform in small ensembles demonstrating proper technique.
· Perform in large ensembles demonstrating proper technique.
· Consistently use proper breathing techniques.
· Consistently exhibit proper posture.
· Consistently exhibit proper instrument position.
· Consistently use proper articulation.
· Consistently use appropriate embouchure.
· Consistently use appropriate technique for the instrument.
· Know and identify the inherent intonation problems of the instrument.
· Consistently perform in tune.
· Consistently perform using proper fingerings.

 

Performance Standard 1.2 (Polyphony)
Students sing and play music in multiple parts.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Maintain a steady beat while singing and playing pitched and non-pitched instruments.
· Play Bourdons and Ostinatos used while singing.
· Alternate pitches using while singing.
· Participate in echo games which develop polyphonic skills.

3-5
· Play ostinato patterns which include various rhythms, patterns, and parts on pitched and non-pitched instruments.
· Sing 3-part rounds, partner songs, and songs with countermelodies.
· Attain an ensemble quality through listening and adjusting.

Students perform music in multiple parts while using proper techniques
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8 (band and choir students)
· Sing or play music written in multiple parts including:
cannons
partner songs
two and three part arrangements
ostinatos
solos
(Music performed will have a level of difficulty of 2-3 on a scale of 1-6)

Students perform level three to five compositions demonstrating proper ensemble techniques.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Attend class regularly.
· Attend performances.
· Model appropriate leadership.
· Model appropriate conduct.
· Model preparation.
· Perform using proper intonation.
· Perform using proper blend.
· Perform using proper balance.
· Perform with rhythmic accuracy.
· Perform using correct notes.
· Perform using consistent interpretation.
· Perform using consistent articulation.
· Perform using consistent style.

 

Performance Standard 1.3 ( Musical Elements - Performing)
Sing and play simple rhythmic, melodic, and chordal patterns in tempo

Grade-level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Accompany pentatonic and one-chord songs on pitched instruments while keeping the beat and/or rhythm pattern.
· Maintain a 4 beat melodic ostinato.
· Imitate speech patterns on non-pitched percussion.
· Transfer the above patterns to pitched percussion.
· Apply understanding of basic beat by moving to chants, rhymes, or various pieces of recorded music.

3-5
· Accompany, on pitched instruments, songs with chords.
· Apply understanding of musical elements through the use of body percussion and movement
.

Students independently perform rhythmic, melodic and chordal patterns in an ensemble setting.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Chant, clap, and count rhythms, both alone and in groups.
· Sing or play harmonic and melodic chord patterns using solfege syllables or note names.
· Sing or play melodic patterns using solfege syllables, text, note names or instruments.
· Demonstrate understanding of same-note relationships (enharmonics) notation.

Students perform level three to five compositions demonstrating precision in specified elements of music.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Evaluate the overall style of music performed.
· Evaluate the overall strengths and weaknesses of a performance.
· Evaluate blend.
· Evaluate balance.
· Evaluate intonation.
· Evaluate dynamics.
· Evaluate melody.
· Evaluate tempo.
· Evaluate tone color.
· Evaluate instrumentation.
· Evaluate harmony.
· Evaluate meter.
· Evaluate ensemble.

 

Performance Standard 1.4 (Genre)
Students sing, play, and move to a varied repertoire of music representing diverse style and time periods.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Learn a minimum of three pieces of music per year which tie in with Social Studies and other areas of classroom study.
· Listen to examples of different styles of music.
· Participate in a minimum of 3 dances which reflect different styles and times.

3-5
· Study a minimum of four pieces per year which relate to Social Studies and other areas of classroom study.
· Recognize, via listening, music which represents different musical styles and time periods.

Students identify and reproduce a variety of styles of music.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Sing or play music of diverse cultures and periods, using expression and style appropriate to the song or piece.
· Discuss traditions, cultures and historical events as they relate to the music.

Students perform level three to five compositions with appropriate stylistic interpretations
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Identify and value a variety of musical styles.
· Model sensitive interpretation.
· Model appropriate style.
· Model appropriate phrasing.
· Model appropriate dynamics.

Performance Standard 1.5 ( Appropriate Response to Conductor Cues)
Students will appropriately respond to conductor (teacher) cues.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Respond to teacher cues for:
Correct entrances
Cut-offs
Change of dynamics
Accents, beat, and pulse of piece
Expression
Enunciation
· Establish focused attention by watching the teacher (or designated conductor).

3-5
· Respond to teacher (conductor) cues at a more advanced level by responding to:
Part cues
Blend and balance
Intonation
Tempo
· Move toward a more formal conducting experience or style.

6-8
· Respond to conductor’s cues as they relate to:
Tempo
Dynamics
Style
Phrasing
Balance
Blend
Intonation
Movement

Students will appropriately respond to conductor’s cues.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Follow directions.
· Follow the conductor’s tempo.
· Follow the conductor’s style.
· Follow the conductor’s interpretation.





Content Standard 2
Students read and notate music

RATIONALE
As students at the elementary level develop a familiarity with, and an ability to identify musical symbols, they begin to recognize, “what music looks like”. They also begin to apply musical symbols and elements in their performance. These beginning steps of reading and notating music give students a unique skill with which to explore music more fully.

At the secondary level, the ability to read and notate music provides students with a valuable skill for creating and performing music throughout their lives. Knowledge of music notation is necessary to create and perform music and to learn new music independently.

Performance Standard 2.1 (Symbols and Terminology)
Students identify musical symbols and traditional music terms

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:
K-2
· Introduce the following symbols:
eighth
quarter
quarter rest
· Utilize rhythm syllables such as ni (Tas/Tis/Blue/Jello)
· Identify the following terms:
steady beat
rest
rhythm
ostinato
bordun
melody
p
f

3-5
· Introduce the following by name:
major treble clef decrescendo staccato
minor staff p legato
bordun measure f fermata
melody/countermelody crescendo accent phrase
· Reinforce symbols introduced in K-2 and add the following musical symbols:
half-note whole note

Students identify and/or read simple melodic patterns responding to common musical terms and indications.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Read whole, half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, and noted notes and rests in common meter signatures.
· Sight read simple melodies using pitch names or solfege in treble and bass clef as applicable.
· Identify and define and apply standard notation symbols for pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tempo, articulation and expression.
Students perform level three to five compositions with appropriate reading and notating skills.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Read notes at the three to five level of difficulty.
· Read rhythms at a three to five level of difficulty.

Performance Standard 2.2 ( Melodies and Rhythms)
Students identify and/or read simple melodic and rhythmic patterns

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Recognize rhythm and melodies
· Sing, plan and move to ostinato patterns.

3-5
· Imitate and create rhythmic and melodic patterns with rhythm instruments and melodic instruments

Students identify and/or read increasingly complex melodic and rhythmic patterns.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Through counting, demonstrate an understanding of increasingly complex rhythms, including dotted rhythms, subdivisions, syncopation and alla-breve.
· Accurately sight read melodies of increasing complexity with varying intervals (perfect, major and minor) using note names and solfege.

9-12
· (See Performance Standard and Curricular Strategies from 2.1)

Performance Standard 2.3 ( Melodies and Rhythms)
Students demonstrate elements of musical notation.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Demonstrate simple rhythmic patterns and melodic contour using developmentally appropriate notation devices (e.g. mapping, icons (pictures), and movement).

3-5
· Reinforce the K-2 benchmarks increasing the level of difficulty.





Content Standard 3
Students improvise and compose using the elements of music

RATIONALE

By improvising and composing music, elementary students develop creative thinking skills as they exhibit multiple intelligences (interpersonal, intrapersonal, verbal/linguistic, mathematical kinesthetic, spatial, and musical). Improvising and composing music also promotes the enjoyment of music as a lifelong endeavor whether as a composer, performer, or consumer of music. Musical understanding and self confidence is increased as elementary students are given the opportunities to begin to understand and manipulate the elements of music through improvisation and composition.

At the secondary level, composing and improvising continues to be a valuable way to exercise musical creativity. As secondary students manipulate the elements of music at an increasing level of sophistication, unique understandings of the form and structure of music are developed. Composing and improvising music are not only powerful means of nonverbal expression but are also challenging, enriching and self-fulfilling experiences.

Performance Standard 3.1 ( Creating Music)
Students create music and movement to accompany literature.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Create sound settings for poetry.
· Create sound settings for 1 short story.
· Use music and movement to portray events in literary works (e.g. folk tales).

Students create music and movement to embellish literature.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:
3-5
· Use a variety of sound sources, including traditional sounds, non-traditional sounds available in the classroom, and electronic media in compositions.
· Create thoughtful alterations and variations in familiar music representing a variety of styles.

6-8 (Jazz band or music theory students)
Students create simple melodies and accompaniments (rhythmic and harmonic for live or recorded performances.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard students will:

· Learn and apply knowledge of basic chord progressions (I, IV, and V) when composing and improvising.
· Learn and apply knowledge of major and minor scale patterns when composing and improvising.
· Learn and apply knowledge of chord progressions and scale patterns when re-arranging and creating melodies and simple harmonic accompaniments.


Students will write four-part complex compositions
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Write major and minor scales.
· Write all intervals.
· Write all triads.
· Write all seventh chords.
· Write simple melody using antecedent and consequent phrase.
· Write simple two-part songs.
· Write simple three-part songs avoiding parallel fourths, fifths, and octaves.
· Understand key signatures and circle of fourths and fifths.
· Understand chord progressions.
· Write a simple four-part song following traditional rules of four-part writing.
· Understand non-harmonic tones.
· Write a five minute composition in their of style and in multiple parts.

 

Performance Standard 3.2 (Arranging and Improvising Music)
Students arrange and improvise short songs, instrumental, and movement pieces.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Create a piece in ABA form with music and movement.
· Improvise movement to reflect style, mood, or subject matter.

3-5
· Include introduction, coda, and repeat into compositions.
· Improvise with voice, instruments, and movement.
· Arrange familiar nursery rhymes, chants, folk tales, songs, stories, etc., using voice, instruments, and movement.

Students perform level three to five compositions using proper improvisational techniques.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Learn and perform basic scales.
· Learn and perform basic chords.
· Learn and perform basic blues progression.
· Demonstrate knowledge of Abersol through a Vivace program.

 

Performance Standard 3.3 (Tone Color)
Students use a variety of sound sources when composing.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Experiment with found sounds and homemade instruments.
· Use traditional pitched and non-pitched instruments with different methods of producing sound.
· Use body percussion as alternatives to other rhythmic instruments.
· Experiment with and use the many different vocal sounds (whisper, animal, “oooh”, shout, whistle, etc.)

3-5
· Choose different instruments when making selections for class projects.
· Demonstrate awareness of timbre and texture in making selections and arrangements.
· Discuss the results of changes in instrumentation.
Students compose using a variety of sound sources.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8 (Jazz band or music theory students)
· Compose using body percussion, percussion instruments, keyboard sound, and/or vocal sounds.
· Arrange simple pieces for voice or instruments other than those for which the piece was originally written.
· Use a variety of traditional and non-traditional sound sources and electronic media when composing and arranging (e.g. vocal, body percussion, percussion and wind instruments, synthesizer, drum machine, sequencer, keyboards).

9-12
· Compose using a variety of instruments for composing.
· Use synthesizer, tone generator, and sequencer in producing compositions.





Content Standard 4
Students listen to, analyze, evaluate, and describe music.

RATIONALE
At the elementary level, skills in listening to and analyzing music are essential elements in increasing students’ personal understanding and enjoyment of music and expanding their musical knowledge. A wide variety of musical experiences is necessary to give students the ability to make informed judgments concerning music and the role it will play in their life. Developing students’ attention span, active listening skills, critical thinking abilities and communication skills are valued attributes in all areas of learning. Because music is related to many other disciplines, learning to understand those relationships helps students to draw connections between their skills and knowledge in music and their skills and knowledge in other subject areas. Performance skills are improved as the elementary student develops the ability to critique personal performance and that of others.

The likelihood that music will play a major role in students’ lives depends largely on the level of listening skills they have achieved. Skill in analysis contributes in important ways to improved skills in listening, performing, composing, and improvising. The musical judgments students make in their lives should be enlightened ones based on broad experience in listening to and analyzing music.

The ability to listen with understanding and to perceive what is heard are essential skills needed in order to participate in one’s musical culture. At the secondary level, students’ increased ability to analyze music enables them to understand music better. Improving their listening and analytical skills enables students to make better judgments concerning music and musical performances, to recognize and pursue quality in their musical experiences, and to enrich their lives and their culture. Evaluating the strength and weaknesses of performances leads to both personal and ensemble performance improvement. The ability to make sound musical judgments also allows the student to become a more sophisticated consumer of quality music.

 

Performance Standard 4.1 (Listening Skills)
Students identify technical and/or expressive qualities in music.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Sing, play, listen to and move to the following form-related items:
introduction/ending
AB, ABA
verse/chorus (refrain)
· Recognize selected orchestral instruments by sight and sound.
· Sing, play, listen to and move to various pieces with a specific listening objective (i.e. a specific instrument, a phrase, passage, theme, etc.).
· Identify and play selected classroom instruments.
· Sing, play, listen to and move to at least three differing styles of selected music.
· Establish a consistent beginner’s vocabulary for describing tempo (student based).
· Sing, play, listen to and move to the expressive qualities that create the mood in music.

Students analyze and describe technical or expressive qualities in music.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:
3-5

· Sing, play, listen to and move to specific forms, such as Rondo.
· Recognize at least 4 styles of music through listening (i.e. classical, New Age, musical theater, rock, contemporary, jazz).
· Recognize and identify, by sight and sound, a variety of orchestral instruments.
· Develop an awareness of ethnic instruments.
· Describe pieces of music using a common vocabulary of descriptors and expressive elements.

Students identify aurally and describe uses of the elements of music in various genres and styles.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Describe specific musical events in a given aural example using appropriate terminology.
· Identify and describe use of the elements of music in a given work that make it unique, interesting and expressive.

9-12
· (See performance standards and curricular strategies in 1.1-1.5).

Performance Standard 4.2 ( Evaluation of Performance)
Students identify and examine criteria for evaluation of their personal and formal performances.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

K-2
· Critique formal performances and classroom activities for evaluation using the following list of qualities:
Stage Presence Ensemble Articulation
Expression Posture Body Language
Energy Mood Focus
Facial Expression Dramatic Effect Entrances and Exits
Following Conductor Cues Use of Props Choreography
Movement
· Make adjustments in performances after discussing the above list of qualities.
Students identify, examine, and establish criteria for evaluation of personal and formal performances.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

3-5
· Add the following to the K-2 list of qualities, critique formal performances and classroom activities:
Intonation
Blend and Balance
Proper Vocal and Instrumental Technique
Students identify, examine, and establish criteria for evaluating musical performances and compositions.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Evaluate a performance composition arrangement or improvisation by comparing it to similar models.
· Apply specific criteria, based on the musical elements, for making informed evaluations of the quality and effectiveness of performances, compositions, arrangements and improvisations.
· Apply specific criteria in making informed decisions as they relate to participation in musical performances.

Students evaluate level three to five compositions.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· evaluate the overall style of music performed
· evaluate the overall strengths and weaknesses of a performance
· evaluate blend
· evaluate balance
· evaluate intonation
· evaluate dynamics
· evaluate melody
· evaluate tempo
· evaluate tone color
· evaluate instrumentation
· evaluate harmony
· evaluate meter
· evaluate ensemble in personal performances and in the performances of others.

Performance Standard 4.3 (Audience Involvement)
Students demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

K-2
· Demonstrate audience behavior which is quietly respectful yet responsive to performers and presenters by exhibiting energy, not noise, when in the role of audience.
· Demonstrate appropriate use of applause (timing, amount and volume).
· Demonstrate appropriate time for entering and leaving.
· Demonstrate understanding of the Four A’s:
Allow Attend Appreciate Applause

Students demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will

3-5
· Exhibit the same audience strategies as outlined for K-2 students.

Students demonstrate audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context, and style of music performed.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Employ audience behavior appropriate for the environment, context and style of music performed.
· Identify opportunities, available in the local area, to listen to live music of various styles.
· Listen attentively and perceptively to a wide variety of music representing diverse genres, styles and cultures.

9-12
· Demonstrate the proficiencies articulated for 6-8 students.



Content Standard 5
Students understand the connection of music to the other arts, to disciplines outside the arts, and to history and culture.

RATIONALE
Connecting music with the other arts, with disciplines outside the arts and to history and culture leads to the development of the “whole child”. Such connections foster a positive student attitude toward music as well as the other arts, and helps to develop an appreciation for the relationship music has with historical and cultural understandings. To fully participate in a diverse, global society, students must understand their own cultural heritage and that of others within their communities and beyond. The study of music provides a unique and valuable insight into the cultural tradition or historical period from which it has come.

As elementary students become familiar with the music of various cultural traditions and historical periods, they gain an intimate and vivid acquaintance with those cultures and periods. It is also important that students understand the cultural and historical forces that help to determine personal and social attitudes and behavior. Understanding a culture, with music as a component, helps to prepare students to live and work in communities that incorporate a variety of cultural traditions. In addition, helping elementary level students make musical connections to other disciplines allows them to identify common elements (e.g. theme, pattern), common principles of organization (e.g. unity, variety), and common terms (e.g. repetition, contrast) across disciplines.

At the secondary level, students develop the ability to compare and contrast musical literature and to compare and contrast musical contributions, contributors, events, themes, and ideas with other disciplines. These abilities enhance both music education and education in other disciplines.

As secondary students learn more about the music of their heritage and the music of their traditions, they become better able to share in the cultural riches music provides and better able to experience personal satisfaction through musical involvement. Because music has been an integral part of human history, education in music is important if students are to gain a broad cultural and historical perspective. In addition, any work of music can be more fully understood and appreciated if one is familiar with the historical, cultural, and aesthetic contexts in which the work was created. Every musical work is a product of its time and place, although many of the works that continue to appeal to human beings transcend their original settings.

 

Performance Standard 5.1 (Music and the Arts)
Students describe ways in which music and the other arts portray similar emotions, events, scenes, and ideas.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Use common terms which are shared by the arts (i.e. line, form, texture…).
· Use contrasts which appear in the arts (loud/quiet, light/dark, high/low)
· Develop an awareness of mood by describing varying mood feelings.
· Discover rhythm in language (poetry, alliteration, flow of speech …).
· Discover rhythm in movement (dance, sports, …).
· Use multiple intelligences to connect emotions and the arts.

 

Performance Standard 5.1 (Music and the Arts)
Students compare ways in which music and the other arts portray similar emotions, events, scenes, and ideas.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

3-5
· Explain how the roles of creators in the various arts are similar to and different from one another.
· Recognize similarities and differences in the uses of common terms across the arts.
· Describe and explain a given musical work as a reflection of the human experience.

 

Performance Standard 5.1 (Music and the Arts)

Students compare ways in which music and other art forms describe similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Give examples and explain how elements, artistic processes and organizational processes are used in similar and distinct ways in the various arts.
· Compare characteristics of 2 or more of the arts within a specified historical period or style and give examples from various cultures.

 

Performance Standard 5.1 (Music and the Arts)

Students learn interrelationships between arts and ideas in a historical context
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

9-12
· Relate events in art and culture with historical events in the context of a time table of history.

 

Performance Standard 5.2 (Music and the other disciples)
Students integrate music and other classroom studies.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Create and perform sound settings.
· Use multiple intelliegences to incorporate other content areas.
· Use music to enhance the mood of a lesson or story.
· Integrate songs about topics being covered in classroom studies outside of music.

3-5
· Use multiple intelliegences to incorporate other content areas.
· Develop extension activities which tie music to other disciplines.

Students identify and explore ways in which music is interrelated to the other disciplines.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Compare and contrast how an event, a scene, an emotion or idea is transferred into a work of art using the characteristic materials of each art (e.g. sound in music, movement in dance, texture and visual stimuli in art).
· Compare and contrast the roles of creators (e.g. painters, playwrights, singers, actors, conductors) and others involved in various artistic disciplines.
· Identify and describe ways in which skills and knowledge of music are related to skills and knowledge in other disciplines.

9-12
· Relate events in art and culture with historical events in the context of a time table of history.

Performance Standard 5.3 (Music, Cultures, and Eras)
Students listen to and identify musical works from various cultures, settings, and time periods.

Grade-Level Proficiencies and Curricular Strategies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2
· Sing, play, and move to music from many different places and times (e.g. Japanese music unit).

Students analyze musical works from various cultures, settings, and time periods.

To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

3-5
· Explain how music reflects historical and societal events and movements (e.g. Civil Right, California Gold Rush).
· Identify traits of a particular culture’s music.
· Identify at least three distinct uses made of music in Western tradition (e.g. ceremony, commercials, worship, entertainment) and describe the characteristics that music must possess to be effective in each one.
· Explain how a given work reflects the time period (or cultural setting) in which it was written.
· Sing in languages, other than English, when appropriate.

Students identify aural examples of music and characteristics of music from varying cultures and historical eras.
To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students will:

6-8
· Compare and contrast music and other art disciplines in a given historical period and/or in a specified cultural context.
· Identify and describe the cultural origin and distinguishing musical characteristics of musical works performed.
· Refer to previously performed works when classifying works which are unfamiliar but represent a particular culture or historical era.

9-12
· Relate events in art and culture with historical events in a context of a time table of history.(PR)