Curriculum

K-12 Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking Standards

1998-99


READING, WRITING, LISTENING & SPEAKING


1. Students read and understand a variety of materials.
2. Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and for diverse audiences.
3. Students write and speak using conventional grammar, usage, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
4. Students apply higher-level thinking skills to their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing.
5. Students read to read, view, locate, select, and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources.
6. Students read and recognize literature as an expression and record of human experience.




Content Standard 1

Students read and understand a variety of materials.


RATIONALE

The goal for students at all levels is that they know and can use strategies-various ways of unlocking the meaning of words and larger blocks of text-to become successful readers. The strategies are applied in increasingly difficult reading material at each grade level. At all levels, students should be challenged to read literature and other materials that reflect and stimulate their interests and intellectual abilities. Reading from a wide variety of texts provides experience in gaining information and pleasure from diverse forms and perspectives, including from other cultures.

1.1 Performance Standard: Students use word recognition and comprehension strategies in reading.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Apply word recognition strategies (e.g. phonics, picture clues, context clues) and comprehension strategies (e.g. predicting, story maps, retelling and recalling information and identifying the main idea) as they read a variety of materials (e.g. rhymes and poems, stories, some non-fiction, and directions).

· Apply the appropriate reading strategy (e.g. context and visual cues) to identify the setting, character, problems, solutions, and events of a story.

3-5

· Use context clues and comprehension strategies as they read a variety of materials.

6-8

· Apply previous and increased word recognition strategies (e.g. context clues, roots, prefixes and suffixes) and comprehension strategies (e.g. previewing, comparing and contrasting, re-reading, and summarizing) as they add technical writing, newspapers, magazines, poetry, short stories, plays, and novels to earlier types of reading material.

9-12

· Apply word recognition strategies to more sophisticated readings (e.g. essays, speeches, autobiographies and first-person historical documents).

· Use comprehension strategies of inference and historical context to identify an author and/or narrator's purpose, point of view or agenda.

Elective Extension

· Apply comprehension strategies as they explore literary criticism and literary analysis, professional and technical journals, and professional-level reading materials that match their career or academic interests.

1.2 Performance Standard: Students make connections between their reading, what they already know and what they need to learn.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Activate background knowledge before reading or hearing a selection.

· Use background knowledge in discussions of ideas, morals, events, and characters similar to the ones encountered in a variety of materials (e.g. rhymes and poems, stories, films, plays).

· Relate readings to their own life.

3-5

· Activate background knowledge before reading a selection.

· Discuss and compare the ideas, morals, events, and characters encountered in a variety of materials to their own experiences and life skills.

6-8

· Compare and contrast the ideas, themes, settings, events, and characters encountered in a variety of materials (e.g. newspapers, magazines, poetry, short stories, plays, and novels) to their own lives, community and values.

· Apply knowledge of foreshadowing, metaphor and simile,.

· Increase understanding of different economic, ethnic, and social backgrounds through their reading.

· Formulate their own questions and identify areas where they need more information.

9-12

· Compare and contrast, evaluate and analyze ideas, themes, settings, events and characters encountered in a variety of materials (e.g. newspapers, magazines, poetry, short stories, plays, novels, speeches, autobiographies, and first-person historical documents) in terms of common values or societal expectations.

· Apply knowledge of foreshadowing, metaphor, simile, symbolism and other figures of speech

1.3 Performance Standard: Students will adjust reading strategies for different purposes.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Begin to skim, scan and locate specific information.

3-5

· Apply the appropriate reading strategies to find the main idea, moral, or point as they read a variety of materials.

· Apply sequencing patterns to reading materials (e.g. chronological, most to least import , etc.).

6-8

· Apply the appropriate reading strategy (e.g. skimming, scanning and finding information to support particular ideas) to find the main ideas, themes, imagery, or information as they add technical writing, newspapers, magazines, poetry, short stories, plays, and novels to previously explored reading material).

9-12

· Apply various reading techniques (reading for a purpose) to a variety of materials (technical writing, newspapers, magazines, poetry, short stories, plays, novels, essays, speeches, autobiographies, and first-person historical documents) to distinguish fact from opinion and to discover themes, imagery, symbolism, tone, point of view and/or other pertinent information.

1.4 Performance Standard: Students will use information from their reading to increase vocabulary and enhance language usage.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:
K-2

· Begin to show interest in new vocabulary.

· Identify and use vocabulary from their reading and listening.
3-5

· Recognize oral and written meanings of words.
6-8

· Be aware of and develop strategies to enhance their vocabularies.
9-12

· Use information from their reading to increase vocabulary and enhance language.

·Use information usage.





Content Standard 2

Students write and speak for a variety of purposes and for diverse audiences.


RATIONALE

Writing and speaking are essential tools for learning, for success in the workplace, and for responsible citizenship. Developing a range of writing and speaking abilities requires extensive study, practice, and reflection. Therefore, students need frequent opportunities to write and speak for different audiences and purposes, and they need to be able to communicate expressively, informatively, and analytically. Growth in writing and speaking abilities occurs by applying skills to increasingly challenging communication tasks.

2.1 Performance Standard: Students write and speak to diverse audiences for a variety of purposes using a variety of techniques.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Write and tell simple stories, letters, requests and reports.

· Write in personal journals.

· Give oral mini-book reviews and informational presentations (e.g. show and tell).

· Write in a legible manner.

3-5

· Explain a procedure or cause/effect relationship to an adult or a peer.

· Give an oral report.

· Adapt word choice to various audiences.

· Write narratives, simple comparison/contrasts and letters to various audiences exploring problems and solutions.

· Begin to write and speak in a variety of content areas (e.g. science, geography, history), using technical vocabulary of the subject accurately.

· Produce legible written material.

6-8

· Explain a procedure or cause/effect relationship to an adult or a peer.

· Write stories, essays, summaries, letters, and reports with greater detail and/or supporting material.

· Continue to write and speak in a variety of content areas (e.g. science, geography, history), using technical vocabulary of the subject accurately.

· Explain increasingly more complicated concepts and procedure to a variety of audiences in both written and oral formats.

· Produce a legible product through handwriting or word processing.

9-12

· Convey content appropriate information in a written form appropriate to the audience and purpose.

· Develop and support an opinion or express and defend a point of view using various forms of persuasion (factual or emotional) in speaking and writing.

· Develop and support theses on a variety of assigned topics.

· Write according to the appropriate form in various specialized fields and career or academic interests (e.g. scientific, technical, business communications).

Elective Extension

· Write longer, formal papers using sources such as technical journals and government publications to support an original thesis.

· Make oral presentations for audiences within or outside the school, in a variety of media.

Experiment with stylistic elements such as voice, tone, and style.

· Experiment with stylistic elements such as voice, tone, and style.

2.2 Performance Standard: Students plan, organize and prepare oral and written presentations using a variety of methods and media.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Think of and develop ideas for a variety of writing and speaking purposes (e.g. telling a story, writing a simple letter to an adult, writing or orally presenting a book report, narrating a presentation).

· Begin to draft, edit and proofread their writing.

· Use age appropriate vocabulary to communicate messages clearly and precisely.

· Give and receive feedback.

3-5

· Generate, develop, and organize ideas for a variety of writing and speaking purposes (e.g. telling a story, publishing a class newsletter, writing a letter to an adult, writing or orally presenting a book report, creating and producing a play, introducing a speaker or an event, narrating a presentation).

· Draft, edit and proofread their writing.

· Begin to revise their work.

· Use vocabulary and figures of speech (personification, metaphors and similes) to communicate messages clearly and precisely.

· Give and receive feedback as an aid to revising and editing speech and writing for a larger audience.

· Begin to use and incorporate a variety of resource materials in writing projects.

6-8

· Continue to draft, revise, edit, and proofread their writing.

· Begin to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and explain in their writing and speaking.

· Incorporate source materials into their speaking and writing (e.g. interviews, news articles, encyclopedia information, etc.)

· Begin to use reference books and models of good writing as aids to revise writing for audiences both in and out of school.

· Begin to format documents according to specific instructions or style manuals using a word-processing program.

· Apply principles of effective communication in oral presentations.

9-12

· Use fictional, dramatic, and poetic techniques to write imaginatively.·

Incorporate material from a wide range of sources (e.g. newspaper , magazines, interviews, technical publications, books) in their writing and speaking.

· Select a focused topic and draft, revise, edit, and proofread a final copy for a larger audience.

· Format documents according to specific ins instructions or style manuals using a word-processing program

· Analyze, synthesize, and evaluate a variety of written and spoken material.

Elective Extension

· Use style books or technical manuals to become self-evaluators in their writing.

· Write longer, formal papers using sources such as technical journals and government publications to support an original thesis.





Content Standard 3

Students write and speak using conventional grammar, applying appropriate usage, s structure, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.


RATIONALE

Students need to know and be able to use standard English. In some circumstances (for example, in writing or telling short stories, narratives, poetry, etc.) students may use non-standard English, but they are expected to know when it is appropriate to do so. Proficiency in this standard plays an important role in how the writer or speaker is understood and perceived. All skills in this standard are reinforced and practiced at all grade levels and should be monitored by both the teacher and student.

3.1 Performance Standard: Students apply correct grammar, usage, and structural devices in speaking and writing.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Use complete sentences with correct subject/verb agreement.

· Use adjectives and adverbs.

3-5

· Use correct and complete sentences with subject/verb agreement.

· Use all parts of speech (nouns [proper and common], pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections).

· Use correct homonyms and homophones.

· Begin to understand concepts of simple, compound and complex sentences.

· Use correct paragraph format (e.g. indenting, topic sentences, supporting sentences, conclusion sentences).

6-8

· Use correct pronoun case, irregular noun (e.g. goose-geese, mouse-mice) and verb forms, and subject/verb agreement involving comparisons in writing and speaking.

· Use more specific and complex modifiers in writing and speaking

· Use simple, compound, complex, and compound/complex sentences in writing and speaking,

· Continue paragraph development with longer and/or more complex paragraph subjects.

9-12

· Use pronoun referents and pronoun antecedents correctly in writing and speaking.

· Use phrases and clauses for purposes of modification and parallel structure in writing and speaking.

· Use transitions and necessary repetition for coherent writing and speaking.

3.2 Performance Standard: Students demonstrate punctuation, capitalization, and spelling skills.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Use correct end punctuation, capitalization and abbreviations in simple sentences.

· Use sound-symbols in temporary spelling.

· Correctly spell frequently used and phonetically regular words.

· Begin to use correct spelling in their writing.

3-5

· Use correct capitalization and punctuation of simple sentences.

· Use end punctuation, abbreviations, and basic capitalization.

· Correctly spell frequently used and phonetically regular words.

· Begin to use quotation marks and underlining with titles.

6-8

· Use correct capitalization and punctuation when writing titles, direct quotations, and possessives.

· Use correct paragraphing in writing.

· Use suffixes correctly in writing and speaking.

· Increase spelling skills.

9-12

· Use correct capitalization, punctuation and spelling as directed in various style manuals.

· Refine spelling skills and become self-evaluators of the mechanics and grammar of their writing and speaking styles.

Elective Extension

· Use increasingly sophisticated vocabulary and grammatical constructions.


3.3 Performance Standard: Students use technology and resources to help edit and proofread.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Explore available technology and resources in editing and proofreading (e.g. delete and shift keys).

3-5

· Begin to correct and edit their writing using software or resources, both independently and with assistance.

· Continue to develop keyboarding skills.

· Begin to use grammar textbooks.

6-8

· Begin to use grammar texts, dictionaries and spell checkers to check and correct spelling and usage errors.

· Correct and edit their writing, both independently and with technical or human assistance.

9-12

· Use technology and resources to help edit, proofread and revise their writing and speaking.





Content Standard 4

Students apply higher-level thinking skills to their reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing.


RATIONALE

Students use reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing to think and learn. By moving beyond a literal interpretation of text to a more thoughtful analysis of an author's, speaker's, or director's purpose and perspectives, students practice and improve their higher-level thinking skills. Students need to recognize and evaluate different points of view in order to follow a line of reasoning to its logical conclusion.

4.1 Performance Standard: Students define problems, and then begin to solve them rationally and creatively using skills from reading, listening, viewing, writing and speaking.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Predict and draw conclusions about stories.

· Begin to recognize fact and opinion in written and spoken forms.

· Begin to use speaking and listening to define and solve problems.

· Begin to formulate questions about what they read, write, hear, and view.

· Practice listening skills in relation to understanding directions.

3-5

· Predict and draw conclusions about stories.

· Recognize fact and opinion in written and spoken forms.

· Begin to analyze, apply, evaluate and synthesize information.

· Use reading, writing, speaking, and listening to define and solve problems.

· Begin to formulate questions about what they read, write, hear, and view.

· Practice listening skills in relation to understanding directions.

6-8

· Predict, draw conclusions, and analyze what they read, hear, and view.

· Formulate questions about what they read, write, hear, and view.

· Continue to practice listening skills in relation to understanding directions, synthesizing information and taking relevant notes.

9-12

 


4.2 Performance Standard: Students identify and explore the purpose, perspective, and historical and cultural influences of a speaker, author, or director.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Begin to explore a speaker's or narrator's point of view.· Explore stories from other cultures.

3-5

· Recognize a speaker's or narrator's point of view.· Identify unique components of stories from other cultures.

6-8

· Recognize an author's or speaker's point of view and purpose.· Recognize, express, and defend a point of view orally and in writing.

9-12

· Recognize an author's, director’s or speaker’s point of view, purpose, and historical/cultural context.

4.3 Performance Standard: Students evaluate the reliability and accuracy of information in light of previous experiences and the purpose, perspective, and historical and cultural influences of a speaker, author or director.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Respond to written and oral presentations based on personal experience as a reader, listener, speaker, and viewer.

3-5

· Respond to written, oral and visual presentations based on personal experience as a reader, listener, and speaker.

6-8

· Begin to recognize literary quality based on elements such as the author's use of vocabulary, character development, plot development, description of setting, and realism of dialogue.

· Use formal group discussion to explore ideas, issues, and information.

9-12

· Identify what constitutes literary quality based on elements such as the author’s control of the storyteller’s voice, the author’s selection of significant details, the author’s development of theme and symbolism, and the author’s reflection of events and ideas of his or her lifetime.

· Critique the content of a oral, visual or written text.

· Recognize propaganda or bias in oral, visual, or written formats.

Elective Extension

· Apply principles of formal logic to written and oral texts.

4.4 Performance Standard: Students create original communicative works to be read, spoken, heard or viewed.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Tell and begin to write stories.

· Illustrate ideas from stories and poems.

· Act out dramatic scenes or role play

.3-5

· Write stories or poems.

· Perform scenes and skits.

6-8

· Write narratives. skits. poems. speeches.· Perform original skits, speeches, poems, and interpretive readings.

· Begin to explore other creative options such as creating simple narrative videos or slide presentations.

9-12

· Write more sophisticated narratives and poems with definite themes and character development, personal essays, persuasive speeches, skits, and modernization's

.· Perform persuasive speeches and debates.

· Produce narrative and persuasive video or multi-media productions as technology becomes available.

· Become self-evaluators of their style.

Elective Extension

· Write computer programs, narratives in a variety of genres, novels, plays.

· Produce more technically advanced videos and multi-media events with animation and graphics.





Content Standard 5

Students learn to read, view, locate, select, and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference, and technological sources.

RATIONALE

To prosper in this age of information and technology, people need reading and information-retrieval skills that will enable them to access facts, images, and text from many sources. The sheer volume of data makes it necessary for information seekers to be able to wade through a maze of facts, figures, and images and to identify whatever is most useful and relevant.Knowing how to locate, evaluate, and make use of an ever-increasing amount of information demands a broader repertoire of reading strategies. This implies an expanded definition of literacy that includes reading for information in a technological age. Students need to become critical consumers of information.

5.1 Performance Standard: Students understand the structure and organization of a variety of media, reference, and technological sources as they select information for their reading, writing, viewing and speaking purposes in producing a quality product.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Recognize organizational features of printed text (e.g. page numbering, alphabetizing, glossaries).

· Use electronic information media (e.g. encyclopedia CD-ROM or other available electronic reference materials).

· Use organizational skills while listening, speaking , reading and writing (e.g. story mapping, retelling, data charts).

· Follow written and oral directions to produce a quail product.

3-5

· Recognize organizational features of printed text (e.g. page numbering alphabetizing, glossaries, chapter heading, tables of contents, indexes, captions, or guide words).

· Recognize organizational features of electronic information (e.g. pull-down menus, icons, key word searches).

· Use organizational features to locate media or electronic information (e.g. passwords, entry menu features, pull down menus, icons, key word searches).·

Use organizational skills such as note taking, outlining, and highlighting main ideas.

· Follow written and/or oral directions to produce a quality product.

6-8

· Use organizational features of printed text such as prefaces, afterwards, and appendices.

· Use organizational features of electronic information (e.g. microfiche headings and numberings headings for accessing nested information in hypertext media, electronic media, CD-ROM, laser disc), and library and inter-library catalog databases.

· Choose an appropriate reading rate to recognize logical sequences in a text and to locate and select relevant supporting and contrasting information.

· Use available resources and technology to produce a quality end-product that is accurately documented.

9-12

· Use organizational features of printed text such as footnotes, end notes, and bibliographic references to locate relevant information.

· Evaluate information in light of what they know and their specific needs.

· Use organizational features of electronic text such as bulletin boards, database keyword searches, and E-mail addresses to locate information as technology becomes available.

· Adjust reading strategies to gain information from journals, research studies, and technical documents.

· Use information and technology from a variety of resources, both primary and secondary, as a vehicle for expressing their own thoughts, impressions and ideas.

· Use available technology to access information, conduct research, and produce a carefully documented quality product.

Elective Extension

· Understand and apply knowledge of the structure, organization, and use of various media, reference, and technological information sources in their reading and writing as they meet academic, personal, and professional challenges.·

Locate information appropriate for their reading and writing purposes such as career and academic interest, leisure time, and self-improvement.

· Plan and present a multimedia presentation.

5.2 Performance Standard: Students paraphrase, summarize, organize, synthesize and give credit for others’ ideas, images, or information.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Retell information.

3-5

· Rephrase information.

· Sort information as it relates to a specific topic or purpose.

· Give credit for borrowed information by telling or listing.

6-8

· Paraphrase correctly.

· Incorporate direct quotes in their written and spoken work.

· Give credit for borrowed information by providing a Bibliography or Works Cited page.

9-12

· Paraphrase, summarize, organize, synthesize and give credit for others’ ideas, images, or information in a recognizable format.

Elective Extension

· Understand and apply knowledge of the structure, organization, and use of various media, reference, and technological information sources in their reading and writing as they meet academic, personal, and professional challenges.

· Locate information appropriate for their reading and writing purposes such as career and academic interest, leisure time, and self-improvement.





Content Standard 6

Students read and recognize literature as and as an expression and record of human experience.


RATIONALE

Literature records human expression in such forms as speeches, poems, novels, stories, nonfiction, essays, plays, films, biographies, and autobiographies by male and female speakers and writers. The study of literary traditions offers a perspective on enduring questions, a glimpse into human motives and conflicts, and a sense of the beauty and power of spoken and written language. In addition, literature enables students to think and communicate clearly as full participants in the ongoing transmission and transformation of culture. The study of literature and writers of the United States honors the heritage and cultures of all people who live or have lived in America, and it thus helps students develop an understanding of our national experience. A comprehensive literature program fosters habits of reading that carry over into adult life and exposes students to a wide variety of human experience.

6.1 Performance Standard: Students read literature to understand places, people, and events, both familiar and unfamiliar, and to investigate issues and interests common to all people.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Read, listen, and respond to a variety of literature, such as folk tales, legends, myths, fiction, rhymes and poems, non-fiction, and content-area reading.

· Begin to use literary terminology such as sequence, setting, character, problem, and solution.

3-5

· Read, listen and respond to a variety of literature, such as folk tales, legends, myths, fiction, rhymes and poems, nonfiction, and content-area reading.

· Use literary terminology such as setting, plot, character, problem, and solution.

6-8

· Read, respond to, and discuss novels, poetry, short stories, nonfiction, content-area and technical material, and plays.

· Read, respond to, and discuss literature that represents points of view from places, people, and events that are familiar and unfamiliar.

· Use literary terminology accurately, including setting, character, conflict, plot, resolution, theme, foreshadowing, and figurative language.

9-12

· Read, respond to, and discuss novels, poetry, short stories, nonfiction, content-area and technical material, plays, essays' and speeches.

· Recognize and use literary terminology accurately (e.g. theme, mood, diction, idiom, perspective, style, point of view, characterization, etc.).

Elective Extensions

· Compare and contrast stories, novels, poems, and other forms of literature from different countries, time periods, or cultures.

· Use novels, poetry, short stories, nonfiction, autobiographies, plays, essays, speeches, literary criticisms and analyses, and any other literature to explore academic, personal, or career issues.

6.2 Performance Standard: Students will read literature that reflects the uniqueness and integrity of the American experience.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Explore American literary works.

3-5

· Begin to explore American and other authors and their works.

6-8

· Compare the diverse voices of our national experience as they read a variety of United States literature.

9-12

· Identify and understand recurrent themes in United States literature.

Elective Extension

· Understand the common themes in the literature of majority and ethnic minority writers of the United States and in world literature.


6.3 Performance Standard: Students will read literature by writers, both classic and contemporary, who represent various cultural and ethnic traditions in global literature.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Read, listen to and respond to literature as a way to explore the similarities and differences among stories and the ways in which those stories reflect the culture in which they were written.

3-5

· Explore different genres (e.g. rhymes and poems, stories, directions, nonfiction material, fairy tales, and folk tales, including those from other communities and cultures).

· Read, listen to and respond to literature as a way to explore the similarities and differences among stories and the ways in which those stories reflect the culture in which they were written.

· Recognize the concept of classic or enduring literature through reading or listening to classic works.

6-8

· Distinguish the elements that characterize and define a literary "classic."· Continue to recognize the concept and quality of classic or ending literature through reading or listening to classic works.

· Demonstrate an understanding of cultural and ethnic traditions of literature.

· Read a variety of literature from around the world to investigate issues common to all people.

9-12

· Read literature by writers, both classic and contemporary, who represent various cultural and ethnic traditions in global literature.

· Demonstrate an increased understanding of cultural and ethnic traditions of literature.