Curriculum

K-12 HISTORY STANDARDS


HISTORY


1. Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to group people and events into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships.
2. Students know how to use various processes and resources of historical inquiry.
3. Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time.
4. Students understand how science, technology, and economic activity have developed, changed, and affected societies throughout history.
5. Students understand political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time.
6. Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history.

NOTE: SPACE is geography’s domain; TIME is history’s domain.



Content Standard 1

Students understand the chronological organization of history and know how to group people and events into major eras to identify and explain historical relationships.


RATIONALE

Chronological thinking is at the very heart of historical reasoning. It provides the frame of mind for organizing historical thought; for determining the order in time of historical developments; for determining how long they lasted; and for examining the various relationships among historical events. It also provides students with a sense of their past, which is necessary for them to understand the present and believe in the possibilities for the future.

1.1 Performance Standard. Students know the general chronological order of people and events in history.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Organize chronological events which occur in a primary student’s life.

3-5

· Chronologically organize significant people, groups, and events in the history of their community, state, region, nation, and world

.· Identify the historical relationships of significant people, groups and events.

6-8

· Describe historical events and people from United States history, the western hemisphere, and world cultures in a chronological context.

· Chronologically organize major people and events in United States history.

9-12

· Identify people and events that characterize the major eras in United States and world history.

· Describe and define the organizing principles of an era.

1.2 Performance Standard. Students use chronology to organize historical events and people.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Create timelines which show people and events in a sequence.

3-5

· Create timelines which show people and events in a sequence.

· Create a brief narrative which chronologically organizes people and/or events in history (i.e. family heritage, school, neighborhood, local community, and/or state).

6-8

· Identify examples of how various cultures have used different ways to organize and measure time.

· Illustrate the time structure of events in written assignments.

· Interpret tiered time lines to show how different series of events happened simultaneously.

9-12

· Understand the time structure and connections found in historical narratives.

· Use timelines as a guide to organize and compare historical information, compare different time periods and places, and answer historical questions.

· Demonstrate that history can be organized in different manners (i.e. thematically, chronologically, geographically).

1.3 Performance Standard. Students use chronology to examine and explain historical relationships.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Identify cause and effect relationships.

3-5

· Identify cause and effect relationships in a sequence of historical events.

6-8

· Compare, contrast, and interpret historical data to determine cause-effect and time-order relationships.

· Compare and contrast patterns and identify themes in related events over time.

9-12

· Analyze and explain cause and effect relationships using chronologically organized historical information.

· Understand the difference between sequential and concurrent (naturally occurring) historical events.

· Use both chronological order and the duration of events to detect and analyze patterns of historical continuity and change.



Content Standard 2

Students know how to use various processes and resources of historical inquiry.


RATIONALE

The study of history requires obtaining and deriving meaning from historical information. It is essential that students of history be able to use the processes of historical inquiry to formulate historical questions, identify patterns of events, analyze cause and effect relationships and evaluate historical arguments in order to make usable conclusions. In addition, the skills needed for evaluating historical arguments are fundamental for understanding current social issues and policy.

2.1 Performance Standard. Students know how to formulate questions and hypotheses regarding what happened in the past and to obtain and analyze historical data to answer questions and support hypotheses.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Pose questions about the past.

3-5

· Gather historical data form various sources (i.e. oral histories, interviews, diaries, letters, newspapers, speeches, texts, maps, photographs, and art works).

· Use available technology to obtain historical information.

· Formulate historical questions using primary and secondary sources (i.e. technology, documents, eyewitness accounts, letters and diaries, artifacts, real or simulated historical sites, charts, graphs, diagrams, and written texts) to understand events from multiple perspectives.

· Determine if the information gathered is sufficient to answer historical questions.

6-8

· Describe historical events and people from United States history, the western hemisphere, and world cultures in a chronological context.

· Chronologically organize major people and events in United States history.

9-12

· Gather, analyze, explain, and defend historical hypotheses using multiple primary and secondary sources.

· Determine if information gathered is sufficient to support hypotheses.

2.2 Performance Standard. Students know how to interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources of historical evidence.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Distinguish between fact and fiction in history.

· Identify how different cultures record their history.

3-5

· Identify the main idea of sources of historical information.

· Interpret the data in historical maps, photographs, art works, and artifacts.

· Identify how different cultures record their history.

· Describe the origin of various sources of historical information.

6-8

· Distinguish between primary and secondary sources, electronic and print media.

· Examine historical data for point of view, cultural context, bias, distortion, or propaganda.

· Explain how historical descriptions, arguments, and judgments can reflect the bias of the author and/or the prevailing ideas of the time period.

9-12

· Evaluate data within the social, political, and economic context in which it was created, test its credibility, and evaluate its bias.

2.3 Performance Standard. Students apply knowledge of the past to analyze present-day issues and events from multiple perspectives.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Distinguish between past and the present.

3-5

· Relate information about the past to present-day situations and problems.

· View current concepts, issues, events, and themes from diverse historical perspectives.

6-8

· View current concepts, issues, events, and themes from historical and cultural perspectives.

9-12

· Identify, evaluate, and interpret the historical basis of contemporary issues.




Content Standard 3

Students understand that societies are diverse and have changed over time.

RATIONALE

An understanding of society is indispensable to an understanding of history and to the understanding by individual students of their roles in the societies in which they live. Students need to understand the interactions that led to the diversity of societies and family and kinship groupings. They need to understand how contacts and exchanges between and among individuals, peoples, and cultures since earliest times have changed societies throughout history.

3.1 Performance Standard. Students know how various societies were changed by contacts and exchanges among diverse peoples and cultures.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Describe the contributions of various cultures in the school, neighborhood, community, state, nation, and around the world.

3-5

· Describe the presence, interactions, and contributions of various cultures in the school, neighborhood, community, state, nation, and around the world.

· Describe the history, interactions, and contributions of the various peoples and cultures that have lived in or migrated to the area that is now Colorado, and to the North America.

6-8

· Describe the history, interactions, and contributions of the various people and cultures that have lived in, migrated, or immigrated to the area that is now the United States.

· Describe the characteristics, history, interactions, literary techniques, and contributions of various groups of people who make up the major culture regions of the world.

9-12

· Describe and explain the circumstances under which past and current societies have integrated and changed, resulting in cultural diffusion.

· Explain the reasons for major periods of immigration to the United States and describe how different segments of United States society reacted and changed.

· Describe the demographic changes resulting from major migrations in history.

3.2 Performance Standard. Students understand the history of social organization in various societies.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Define and identify the advantages of living in a social group.

· Recognize that there are families and cultures from around the world, each with its own unique heritage.

3-5

· Describe important components of the cultural heritage of the United States.

· Describe and give examples of basic elements of culture and social organization.

· Explain that the roles of people have differed throughout history based on gender, age, caste, race, wealth, and/or social position.

· Describe how changing social roles have affected the characteristics of social organization in the United States and throughout history.

6-8

· Compare the diverse types of social organization that various cultures have formed throughout history.

· Describe how the roles of important people have differed throughout history (i.e. slavery, Native Americans).

· Compare the various social organizations of cultures.

9-12

· Explain how societies are maintained through involved membership and analyze the various forces that social roles and social organizations have played throughout history.

· Understand how social interactions have shaped history.

· Explain how the history of the United States is characterized by continuous public dialogue and the writings of our founding fathers.

· Describe how modern societies and their social organization have become increasingly complex.





Content Standard 4

Students understand how science, technology, and economic activity have developed, changed, and affected societies throughout history.

RATIONALE

Major scientific, technological, and economic developments have been the source of profound changes in people’s lives and in the social and political structures under which they have lived. They appear first in earliest prehistoric societies and continue to today’s highly technological and economically interdependent societies. Students need to understand the history of developments in science and technology and of economic activity in order to participate as informed citizens.

4.1 Performance Standard. Students understand the impact of scientific and technological developments on individuals and societies.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Name the significant achievements of scientists and inventors.

3-5

· Compare the lives of hunters and gatherers to the lives of people who cultivated plants and raise domesticated animals for food.

· Describe the impact of various technological developments on the local community, state and nation (e.g. irrigation, transportation, communication, mining and recreation).

· Describe and explain the significance of achievements of scientists and inventors.

6-8

· Describe and explain how industrialization influenced the movement of people (i.e. urban, suburban, and rural areas).

· Explain the consequences of scientific and technological changes (i.e. navigation, transportation, printing, weaponry, agriculture, communication, industrialization, and medicine).

· Relate differences in technology to differences in how people live in various regions of the world.

9-12

· Explain the major technological turning points in history.

· Explain how the scientific revolution affected how people lived in and viewed the world.

· Describe and explain the social and economic changes that resulted from industrialization and the growth of organized labor.

· Evaluate the impact of rapid developments in technology.

4.2 Performance Standard. Students understand how economic factors have influenced historical events.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Name and understand the jobs people have in their community.

· Understand the role of work to the individual and the community.

3-5

· Describe the economic reasons why people move to or from a location, especially in the history of the community, Colorado, and United States regions.

· Explain how the area’s economy has historically depended upon natural resources and how this has affected the community, the state, and the U.S. regions.

· Explain how economic factors have influenced historical events in the United States.

· Understand the existence of various systems of exchange.

6-8

· Explain how economic factors influenced historical events in the United States and in various regions of the world.

· Describe the relationships between economic activity and the environment at various times and places in the past.

· Describe how systems of exchange and other economic developments influenced growth and history of civilizations.

· Explain how economic changes led to the growth of towns, cities, and, eventually, the modern nation-state.

· Explain how societies are and have been linked by economic factors.

9-12

· Explain how differences in the physical environment have contributed to economic differences throughout history.

· Describe the relationship between economic factors and social and political policies throughout history.

· Explain the rise, expansion, and impacts of trade among countries and regions of the world.

· Describe the relationship between economic factors and historical events to contemporary economic problems.

4.3 Performance Standard. Students understand the historical development and know the characteristics of various economic systems.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Understand that resources can be allocated in a variety of ways (i.e. sharing, authority, saving).

· Understand the consequences of dispersing resources immediately or over periods of time.

3-5

· Give examples of different ways that resources can be allocated (i.e. barter, authority, might, “first-come, first-served”).

· Describe the “boom and bust” economy of Colorado and the region.

· Name the general characteristics of economic systems (i.e. supply and demand, producers and consumers).

6-8

· Identify the historical development of the U.S. economic system as explained by diverse points of view.

· Describe the general characteristics of economic systems (i.e. limited resources and unlimited wants).

9-12

· Explain how the development of trade created markets that led to mediums of exchange and accumulation of wealth.

· Define the relationship between a free enterprise economic system and the role of government.

· Describe characteristics of specific economic systems.

· Explain the historical factors that led to the transition from local and regional economies to a global economy.





Content Standard 5

Students understand political institutions and theories that have developed and changed over time.


RATIONALE

People living together in societies address the issues of cooperation and control through their political systems and ideologies. All societies have struggled and continue to struggle to preserve law, security, and a concept of justice. A theme central to this area is the evolution of democracy and the long struggle for liberty, equality, justice, and dignity. To become effective citizens in a democracy, students must be able to deal with the inherent tensions and inevitable conflicts caused by the pursuit of both principles of liberty and equality, and of personal freedom and social justice. Students need to understand that none of these principles can be sacrificed during difficult times if democratic government is to endure.

5.1 Performance Standard. Students understand how democratic ideas and institutions in the U.S. have developed, changed, and/or been maintained.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Identify historical figures from diverse backgrounds in the United States.

· Name national holidays, symbols, and celebrations.

· Explain the need for and benefits of rules and personal responsibility in a family, school, neighborhood, and community.

· Explain why communities have laws to maintain order and protect citizens.

3-5

· Explain the significance of historical figures from diverse backgrounds in the United States who have advanced the rights of individuals and promoted the common good.

· Describe how national holidays, symbols, and celebrations exemplify the fundamental ideals and principles of democracy.

· Show the need for the benefits of rules and personal responsibility in a family, school, neighborhood, community, state and nation.

· Identify the constitution of Colorado and the United States as important documents.

· Explain why cities and towns, states, and nations have laws to maintain order to protect citizens.

· Identify the needs for changes in laws based upon historical periods and regions.

6-8

· Describe the basic ideas set forth in the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.

· Understand the outside influences which affected the establishment of laws.

· Describe how constitutional interpretations affect contemporary political issues.

· Explain the causes and character of civil wars and their effects on the political systems of the United States.

· Give examples of extensions of political and civil rights in U.S. history.

9-12

· Explain the influence of historical forces on the development of the laws which govern U.S. constitutional democracy.

· Analyze how the ideas set forth in our founding documents are affected by who interprets them and by their political traditions.

· Describe how our founding documents have affected contemporary political issues.

· Explain the role of federalism and how it has changed over time.

· Analyze how political and economic factors have affected the growth and forms of direct democracy.


5.2 Performance Standard. Students know the characteristics of various systems of government and are able to identify and describe historical examples.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Define the rules established and enforced in the school and community.

· Explain how established rules are enforced within the school and community.

3-5

· Explain how and why rules are established and enforced in the school, states, and the nation.

· Explain how and why laws are established and enforced in cities, states, and nations.

· Understand the differences between democratic and autocratic forms of government.

· Identify the functions of the city, county, state and national governments.

6-8

· Describe how early societies developed laws to govern people.

· Describe the basic forms of government by giving examples of societies which have practiced them.

· Describe how various other nations have pursued, established, and maintained democratic forms of government.

9-12

· Analyze the forces and philosophies from significant eras and civilizations that have led to the development of modern political systems.

· Describe and compare the characteristics of various modern political systems, and give examples of nations that use them.

5.3 Performance Standard. Students know how political power has been acquired, lost, and used throughout history.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Recognize that there are winners and losers in elections (i.e. student council, local, presidential)

· Learn that voting is a personal and private decision.

3-5

· Learn how various cultural groups have gained or lost rights in the history of the community, state, and nation.

6-8

· Describe how various attributes of people affect political rights (i.e. gender, race, national origin, property ownership, religion, legal status).

· Describe how expansion resulted in the assumption or seizure of political power throughout much of the world.

· Give examples of how various groups of people used slavery and other forms of involuntary servitude to maintain and expand power throughout history.

· Analyze the causes and characteristics of the American Revolution and the ideas and interests supporting the revolutionary movement.

9-12

· Explain how military conquest and invasion have been used to assume, maintain, and extend political power throughout history.

· Evaluate the impact of major revolutions on the realignment of political power throughout the modern world.

· Evaluate the consequences of various methods used to acquire and maintain political power (i.e. coercion, genocide, weapons of destruction).

· Describe how the development and expansion of empires throughout history has extended political power.

· Describe and analyze the major events in the expansion of the political power of the United States.

· Analyze the causes of World Wars I and II and other wars of the 20th century and the resulting changes in the distribution of political power.

· Explain how various countries maintained their independence during periods of colonial expansion.

· Give examples of former colonies and dependent states throughout the world that have gained independence in the 20th century, and explain how they have addressed the political issues related to independence.

5.4 Performance Standard. Students know the history of relationships among different political powers and the development of international relations.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Give examples of how members of families and communities depend on each other.

· Recognize that there are nations around the world and that they come together in such ways as the United Nations and the Olympics.

3-5

· Understand how states and regions are interdependent.

· Investigate how relationships of nations working together cause group efforts (i.e. global sports, Red Cross, United Nations, Olympics)

6-8

· Describe how the relationships of the United States with external political powers developed with the growth of the nation.

· Summarize federal Indian policy and its changes.

· Describe the eras of United States diplomacy from the Revolution to the Civil War.

9-12

· Describe the characteristics of relationships among political entities (e.g. monarchies, empires, principalities, city-states, federations) in the past.

· Explain how the growth of nationalism affected the relationships among political powers.

· Describe the eras of United States diplomacy from the Revolution through the modern period (e.g. Monroe Doctrine, domino theory, detente).

· Describe the political realignments brought about by the various wars and economic developments of the 20th century.

· Explain how the foreign policy of the United States and other nations continues to develop and change.

· Analyze the development of and issues associated with worldwide peace and human rights organizations.

· Identify basic patterns of political alliances in the modern world.





Content Standard 6

Students know that religious and philosophical ideas have been powerful forces throughout history.


RATIONALE

From the great questions of human existence, religious and philosophical answers have emerged with astonishing power to move entire peoples to action.Because religion plays a significant role in history and society, study about religion is essential to understanding both the nation and the world. Omission of facts about religion can give students the false impression that the religious life of humankind is insignificant or unimportant. Understanding the basic symbols, practices, and concepts of various religions makes much of history, literature, art, and contemporary life intelligible.

6.1 Performance Standard. Students know the origin and historical development of religions and philosophical beliefs.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Recognize that all people develop traditions that embody and transmit their beliefs and values.

3-5

· Describe religious traditions of various ethnic groups in the United States and the world.

6-8

· Describe how people have explained their observations and understandings of natural phenomena and the physical environment in which they live.

· Describe religious developments in United States history (e.g. the Great Awakening, Mormon Trek, founding of utopian religious communities).

· Describe religious traditions of various ethnic groups in the United States and the world.

· Compare the basic ideas of monotheism and polytheism.

9-12

· Describe basic tenets of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and other religious systems that have acted as major forces throughout history.

· Explain how, throughout history, conflicts have arisen between different ways of knowing and believing.

· Trace the history of how principal world religions and belief systems developed and spread.

· Explain how, throughout history, the power of the state has been both derived from religious authority and/or in conflict with it.

· Describe basic ideas of various schools of philosophy that have impacted societies in the past and present day.

6.2 Performance Standard. Students know how societies have been affected by religions and philosophical systems.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Give examples of how the beliefs of people are reflected in the celebrations and practices of their community.

3-5

· Describe the role religion played in the development of the United States in colonial times.

6-8

· Give examples of how religious and philosophical beliefs have defined standards of right and wrong, good and evil, and justice and injustice.

· Give and describe examples of people who, throughout history, acted from their religious or philosophical beliefs.

· Describe the role religion played in the development of the United States from colonial times through the present.

· Explain how the beliefs and experiences of the colonists led to the concept of separation of church and state in the United States.

9-12

· Give examples of how religion has influenced various aspects of society throughout history (i.e. cults, religious/political parties).

· Explain how, throughout the history of the world, attempts to separate or unite secular and religious authority have resulted in conflict.

· Explain how the beliefs and experiences of the colonists led to the concept of separation of church and state in the United States.

· Compare how different religions and philosophical belief systems have addressed the roles of the individual and the community.

· Explain how the focus on individualism expressed in Western philosophy has affected the history of Western culture, including the history of the United States.

· Explain how the beliefs expressed in Eastern philosophy have affected the history of Eastern cultures.

6.3 Performance Standard. Students know how various forms of artistic expression reflect religious and philosophical beliefs.

Grade-Level Student Proficiencies. To demonstrate proficiency in the performance standard, students at each grade level below will:

K-2

· Recognize examples of artistic forms that express the history, daily life, and beliefs of various cultures.

3-5

· Give examples of artistic forms that express the history, daily life, and beliefs of various cultures.

· Give examples of cultural traditions, their forms of expression and features of their communities that have changed over time.

6-8

· Describe how societies have used various forms of visual arts, dance, theater, and music to express their religious and philosophical beliefs throughout history.

· Give examples of the unique art forms that characterize the various ethnic groups in the United States and describe the contributions of those art forms to the national culture.

· Explain how stories, myths, and other forms of literature and oral traditions reflect the beliefs of cultures and societies.

· Explain the religious or philosophical significance of structures such as pyramids, cathedrals, and burial mounds.

9-12

· Explain how, throughout history, artistic and literary expression have often resulted in controversy.

· Give examples of the visual arts, dance, music, theater, and architecture of the major periods of history and explain what they reflect about the values and beliefs of various societies.