Curriculum

K-12 Social Studies Standards

Developed by

Roland Urrutia - Curriculum Coordinator
Vicki Baumgartner - Dillon Valley Elementary
Wendy Blasingame - Summit Middle School
Janis Bunchman - Breckenridge Elementary
Nancy Gunn - Silverthorne Elementary
Pat Hale - Frisco Elementary
Helen Hertzog - Breckenridge elementary
Bethany Lambrecht - Summit Middle School
Greg Lynch - Upper Blue Elementary
Mark McDonald - Summit Middle School
Phyllis Ring - Silverthorne Elementary
Beth Schwartz - Frisco Elementary
Deb Snyder - Frisco Elementary

1995-1996

Adopted by Board of Education
November 25, 1997


SOCIAL STUDIES


CONTENTS

Introduction
Themes of the Social Studies Curriculum
The Five Content Standards
K-12 Sequence of Instruction
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Elementary Level Performance Standards
Overview: Units by Grade Level
Elementary School Social Studies Curricular Units (by grade level)
MIDDLE SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Middle School Performance Standards
Overview: Units by Grade Level
Middle School Social Studies Curricular Units (by grade level)
HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Overview: Courses by Grade Level
Current Texts
High School Courses

INTRODUCTION

The framework on which the social studies curriculum rests consists of ten themes, incorporating fields of study that correspond to one or more relevant disciplines:

The Ten Themes
1. Culture
2. Time, Continuity, and Change
3. People, Places, and Environments
4. Individual Development and Identity
5. Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
6. Power, Authority, and Governance
7. Production, Distribution, and Consumption
8. Science, Technology, and Society
9. Global Connections
10. Civic Ideals and Practices

The first theme, “Culture,” for instance, includes elements of anthropology, geography, history, and sociology. These ten themes span the educational levels from early to middle grades to high school.

Two features of these curriculum strands are especially important. First, the ten themes are interrelated. To understand culture, for example, students need to understand time, continuity, and change; the relationship among people, places, and environments; and civic ideals and practices. To understand power, authority, and governance, students need to understand the relationship among cultures, people, places, and environments; and individuals, groups, and institutions. Second, the thematic strands draw from all of the social science disciplines and from disciplines and fields of scholarly study outside of the social sciences.

The grades at which particular curricula are presented are broken down into grade levels K-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Later in this document, content standards are listed. The content standards are statements of what a student should know and be able to do as a result of the learnings in the social studies. They are, therefore, the primary focus of the curriculum. Student performance standards, or grade level student proficiencies are then listed under each standard. Finally, each grade has designated curricular strategies (teaching techniques), classroom activities, possible classroom resources, and assessment strategies by unit and by grade.

The Ten Themes

The ten themes that form the framework of the social studies are:

1. Culture
Human beings create, learn, and adapt culture. Culture helps us to understand ourselves both as individuals and as members of various groups. Different cultures exhibit both similarities and differences. We all, for example, have systems of beliefs, knowledge, values, and traditions. Each system also is unique. In a democratic and multicultural society, students need to understand multiple perspectives that derive from different cultural vantage points. This understanding will allow them to relate to people in our nation and throughout the world. Cultures are dynamic and ever-changing.

The study of culture prepares students to answer questions such as: What are the common characteristics of different cultures? How do belief systems, such as religion or political ideals, influence other parts of the culture? How does the culture change to accommodate different ideas and beliefs? What are the effects of various cultures on world events? What does language tell us about the culture? In the Summit School District, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with geography, history, sociology, and anthropology, as well as multicultural topics across the curriculum.

Elementary School
During the early years of school, the exploration of concepts of likenesses and differences in school subjects such as language arts, mathematics, science, music, and art makes the study of culture appropriate. Socially, the young learner is beginning to interact with other students, some of whom are like the student and some different; naturally, he or she wants to know more about others.

Middle School
In the middle grades, students begin to explore and ask questions about the nature of culture and specific aspects of culture, such as language and beliefs, and the influence of those aspects on human behavior.

High School
As students progress through high school, they can understand and use complex cultural concepts such as adaptation, assimilation, acculturation, diffusion, and dissonance drawn from anthropology, sociology, and other disciplines to explain how culture and cultural systems function.

2. Time, Continuity, and Change
Human beings seek to understand their historical roots and to locate themselves in time. Such understanding involves knowing what things were like in the past, how things change and develop, and what causes things to change and develop. Knowing how to read and reconstruct the past allows one to develop a historical perspective and to answer questions such as: Who am I? What happened in the past? How am I connected to those in the past? How has the world changed and how might it change in the future? Why does our personal sense of relatedness to the past change? How can the perspective we have about our own life experiences be viewed as part of the larger human story across time? How do our personal stories reflect varying points of view and inform contemporary ideas and actions? Using the past as a frame of reference, what predictions can we make about the future?

In the Summit School District, this theme typically appears in studies that: 1) include perspectives from various aspects of history; 2) draw upon historical knowledge during the examination of social issues; and 3) develop the habits of mind that historians and scholars in the humanities and social sciences employ to study the past and its relationship to the present in the United States and other societies.

Elementary School
Learners in early grades gain experience with sequencing to establish a sense of order and time. They enjoy hearing stories of the recent past as well as of long ago. In addition, they begin to recognize that individuals may hold different views about the past and to understand the linkages between human decisions and consequences. Thus, the foundation is laid for the development of historical knowledge, skills, and values.

Middle School
Middle-grade students, through a more formal study of history, continue to expand their understanding of the past and of historical concepts of inquiry. They begin to understand and appreciate differences in historical perspectives, recognizing that individual experiences, societal values, and cultural traditions influence their interpretations.

High School
High school students engage in more sophisticated analysis and reconstruction of the past, examining its relationship to the present and extrapolating past events into the future. They integrate individual stories about people, events, and situation to form a more holistic conception, in which continuity and change are linked in time and across cultures. Students also learn to draw on their knowledge of history to make informed choices and decisions in the present.

3. People, Places, and Environments
Technological advances connect students at all levels to the world beyond their personal location. The study of people, places, and human-environment interactions assists students as they create their spatial views and geographic perspectives of the world beyond their personal locations. Today’s social, cultural, economic, and civic demands on individuals mean that students need the knowledge, skills, and understanding to answer questions such as: Where are things located? Why are they located where they are? What patterns are reflected in locational groupings of things? What do we mean by “region”? How do landforms change? How do people affect and change the environment? What implications do these changes have for people? This area of study helps learners make informed and critical decisions about the relationship between human beings and their environment. In the Summit School District, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with geographic concepts.

Elementary School
In the early grades, young learners draw upon immediate personal experiences as a basis for exploring geographic concepts and skills. They also express interest in things distant and unfamiliar and have concern for the use and abuse of the physical environment.

Middle School
During the middle school years, students relate their personal experiences to happenings in other environmental contexts. Appropriate experiences will encourage increasingly abstract thought as students use data and apply skills to analyze human behavior in relation to its physical and cultural environment.

High School
Students in high school are able to apply geographic understanding across a broad range of fields, including the fine arts, sciences, and humanities. Geographic concepts become central to learners’ comprehension of global connections as they expand their knowledge of diverse cultures, both historical and contemporary. The importance of core geographic themes to public policy is recognized and explored as students address issues of domestic and international significance.

4. Individual Development and Identity
Personal identity is shaped by one’s culture, by groups, and by institutional influences. Students consider such questions as: How do people learn? Why do people behave as they do? What influences how people learn, perceive, and grow? How do people meet their basic needs in a variety of contexts? Questions such as these are central to the study of how individuals develop from youth to adulthood. Examining various forms of human behavior enhances understanding the relationships among social norms and emerging personal identities, the social processes that influence identity formation, and the ethical principles underlying individual action. In the Summit School District, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with psychology and anthropology.

Elementary School
Given the nature of individual development and our own cultural context, students need to be aware of the processes of learning, growth, and development at every level of their school experience. In the early grades, for example, observing brothers, sisters, and older adults, looking at family photo albums, remembering past achievements and projecting oneself into the future, and comparing the patterns of behavior evident in people of different age groups are appropriate activities because young learners develop their personal identities in the context of families, peers, schools, and communities. Central to this development are exploring, identifying, and analyzing how individuals relate to others.

Middle School
In the middle school grades, issues of personal identity are refocused as the individual begins to explain self in relation to others in the society and culture.

High School
At the high school level, students need to encounter multiple opportunities to examine contemporary patterns of human behavior, using methods from the behavioral sciences to apply core concepts drawn from psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology as they apply to individuals, societies, and cultures.

5. Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
Institutions such as schools, churches, families, government agencies, and the courts play an integral role in people’s lives. These and other institutions exert enormous influence over us, yet institutions are no more than organizational embodiments to further the core social values of those who constitute them. Thus, it is important that students learn how institutions are formed, what controls and influences them, how they influence individuals and culture, and how they are maintained or changed. The study of individuals, groups, and institutions, drawing upon sociology, anthropology, and other disciplines, prepares students to ask and answer questions such as: What is the role of institutions in this and other societies? How am I influenced by institutions? How do institutions change? What is my role in institutional change? In the Summit School District this theme appears in units dealing with sociology, anthropology, psychology, political science, and history.

Elementary School
Young children should be given opportunities to examine various institutions that affect their lives and influence their thinking. They should be assisted in recognizing the tensions that occur when goals, values, and principles of two or more institutions or groups conflict -- for example, when the school board prohibits candy machines in schools vs. a class project to install a candy machine to help raise money for the local hospital. They should also have opportunities to explore ways in which institutions such as churches or health care networks respond to changing individual and group needs.

Middle School
Middle school learners will benefit from varied experiences through which they examine the ways in which institutions change over time, promote social conformity, and influence culture. They should be encouraged to use this understanding to suggest ways to work through institutional change for the common good.

High School
High school students must understand the paradigms and traditions that undergird social and political institutions. They should be provided opportunities to examine, use, and add to the body of knowledge related to the behavioral sciences and social theory as they relate to the ways people and groups organize themselves around common needs, beliefs, and interests.

6. Power, Authority, and Governance
Understanding the historical development of structures of power, authority, and governance and their evolving functions in contemporary U.S. society and other parts of the world is essential for developing civic competence. In exploring this theme, students confront questions such as: What is power? What form does it take? Who holds it? How is it gained, used, and justified? What is legitimate authority? How are governments created, structured, maintained, and changed? How can we keep government responsive to its citizens’ needs and interests? How can individual rights be protected within the context of majority rule? By examining the purposes and characteristics of various governance systems, learners develop an understanding of how groups and nations attempt to resolve conflicts and seek to establish order and security. Through studying the dynamic relationships among individual rights and responsibilities, the needs of social groups, and the concepts of a just society, learners become more effective problem-solvers and decision-makers when addressing the persistent issues and social problems encountered in public life. In the Summit School District, this theme appears in units and courses dealing with government, politics, political science, history, and the other social sciences.

Elementary School
Learners in the early grades explore their natural and developing sense of fairness and order as they experience relationships with others. They develop an increasingly comprehensive awareness of rights and responsibilities in specific contexts.

Middle School
During the middle school years, these rights and responsibilities are applied in more complex contexts with emphasis on new applications.

High School
High school students develop their abilities in the use of abstract principles. They study the various systems that have been developed over the centuries to allocate and employ power and authority in the governing process. At every level, learners have the opportunities to apply their knowledge and skills to and participate in the workings of the various levels of power, authority, and governance.

7. Production, Distribution, and Consumption
Because people have wants that often exceed the resources available to them, a variety of ways have evolved to answer such questions as: What is to be produced? How is production to be organized? How are goods and services to be distributed? What is the most effective allocation of the factors of production (land, labor, capital, and management)? Unequal distribution of resources requires systems of exchange, including trade, to improve the well-being of the economy, while the role of government in economic policymaking varies over time and from place to place. Increasingly these decisions are global in scope and require systematic study of an interdependent world economy and the role of technology in economic decision-making. In the Summit School District, this theme appears in units of study dealing with economic concepts and issues.

Elementary School
Young learners begin by differentiating between wants and needs. They explore economic decisions as they compare their own economic experiences with those of others and consider the wider consequences of those decisions on groups, communities, the nation, and beyond.

Middle School
In the middle school grades, learners expand their knowledge of economic concepts and principles, and use economic reasoning processes to address issues related to the above four fundamental economic questions.

High School
High school students develop economic perspectives and deeper understandings of key economic concepts and processes through systematic study of a range of economic and sociopolitical systems, with particular emphasis on examining domestic and global economic policy options related to matters such as health care, resource use, unemployment and trade.

8. Science, Technology, and Society
Technology is as old as the first crude tool invented by prehistoric humans, but today’s technology forms the basis for some of our most difficult social choices. Modern life as we know it would be impossible without technology and the science that supports it. But technology brings with it many questions: Is new technology always better than old? What can we learn from the past about how new technologies result in broader social change, some of which is unanticipated? How can we cope with the ever-increasing pace of change? How can we manage technology so that the greatest number of people benefit from it? How can we preserve our fundamental values and beliefs in the midst of technological change? This theme draws upon the natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities, and appears in a variety of social studies units, including history, geography, economics, civics, and government. It draws upon several scholarly fields from the natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and the humanities for specific examples of issues and the knowledge base for considering responses to the societal issues related to science and technology.

Elementary School
Young children can learn how technologies form systems and how their daily lives are intertwined with a host of technologies. They can study how basic technologies such as ships, automobiles, and airplanes have evolved, and how we have employed technology such as air conditioning, dams, and irrigation to modify our physical environment. From history (their own and that of others), they can construct examples of how technologies such as the wheel, the stirrup, and the transistor radio altered the course of history.

Middle School
By the middle school grades, students can begin to explore the complex relationships among technology, human values, and behavior. They will find that science and technology bring changes that surprise us and even challenge our beliefs, as in the case of the discoveries and their applications related to our universe, the genetic basis of life, atomic physics, and others.

High School
At the high school level, students will need to think more deeply about how we can manage technology so that we control it rather than the other way around. Opportunities will be provided whereby students confront such issues as the consequences of using robots to produce goods, the protection of privacy in the age of computers and electronic surveillance, and the opportunities and challenges of genetic engineering, test-tube life, and medical technology with their implications on longevity, and quality of life and religious beliefs.

9. Global Connections
The realities of global interdependence require understanding the increasingly important and diverse global connections among world societies. Analyzing the tension between national interests and global priorities contributes to developing possible solutions to persistent and emerging global issues in many fields: health care, economic development, environmental quality, universal human rights, and others. Analyzing patterns and relationships within and among world cultures, such as economic competition and interdependence, age-old ethnic enmities, political and military alliances, and others, helps learners carefully examine policy alternatives that have both national and global implications. This theme typically appears in units or courses dealing with geography, culture, and economics, but may also draw upon the natural and physical sciences and the humanities, including literature, the arts, and language.

Elementary School
Through exposure to various media and first-hand experiences, young learners become aware of and are affected by events on a global scale. Within this context, students in early grades examine and explore global connections and basic issues and concerns, suggesting and initiating responsive action plans.

Middle School
During the middle school years, learners can initiate analysis of the interactions among states and nations and their cultural complexities as they respond to global events and changes.

High School
At the high school level, students are able to think systematically about personal, national, and global decisions, interactions, and consequences, including addressing critical issues such as peace, human rights, trade, and global ecology.

10. Civic Ideals and Practices
Understanding civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. All people have a stake in examining civic ideals and practices across time and in diverse societies as well as at home, and in determining how to close the gap between present practices and the ideals upon which our democratic republic is based. Learners confront such questions as: What is civic participation and how can I be involved? How has the meaning of citizenship evolved? What is the balance between rights and responsibilities? What is the role of the citizen in the community and the nation, and as a member of the world community? How can I make a positive difference? In the Summit School District, this theme appears in units or courses dealing with history, political science and cultural anthropology, and in fields such as global studies and the humanities.

Elementary School
In the early grades, students are introduced to civic ideals and practices through activities such as helping to set classroom expectations, examining experiences in relation to ideas, and determining how to balance the needs of individuals and the group. During these years, children also experience views of citizenship in other times and places through stories and drama.

Middle School
During the middle school grades, students expand their ability to analyze and evaluate the relationships between ideals and practice. They are able to see themselves taking civic roles in their communities.

High School
High school students increasingly recognize the rights and responsibilities of citizens in identifying societal needs, setting directions for public policies, and working to support both individual dignity and the common good. They learn by experience how to participate in community service and political activities and how to use democratic processes to influence public policy.

THE FIVE STANDARDS

The social studies curriculum essentially combines the proposed and adopted State model content standards in history, geography, economics and civics with the curriculum framework of the National Council for the Social Studies. Knowing that elementary schools do not teach the social studies by discrete disciplines, combining the disciplines into the ten themes of the social studies has been accomplished. The other areas included in the social studies (i.e. anthropology, psychology etc.) are embedded in the ten themes. To streamline the format of the elementary social studies curriculum, the ten themes have been combined into 5 content standards:

1. Students know the ways in which culture helps us to understand ourselves as both individuals and members of various groups.

2. Students understand people, places, global connections, and the human-environment interactions as they create their spatial view and geographic perspective of the world and the relationships among science, technology, and society.

3. Students use the concepts of Time, Continuity, and change to develop an understanding of their historical roots, to locate themselves in time, and to discover their personal identity.

4. Students understand the ways in which people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

5. Students understand the historical development and structures of power, authority, governance, and institutions and their evolving function in contemporary U.S. society, as well as in other parts of the world, in order to develop civic ideals and practices of citizenship.

· Standard 1 is essentially the same as theme 1
· Standard 2 combines themes 2, 8, and 9
· Standard 3 combines themes 3 and 4
· Standard 4 is the same as theme 7
· Standard 5 combines themes 5, 6, and 10

Standard 1 deals primarily with the study of anthropology, sociology and psychology
Standard 2 deals primarily with the study of geography, and science and technology
Standard 3 deals primarily with history and psychology
Standard 4 deals primarily with geography
Standard 5 deals primarily with civics, and history

It is difficult to ascribe a particular discipline to a particular standard because nearly all of the discrete disciplines are integrated into each standard.

K-12 SEQUENCE OF INSTRUCTION

Content Standard 1
Students know the ways in which culture helps us to understand ourselves as both individuals and members of various groups

The Summit School District social studies curriculum includes experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity, so that students can:

Grades K-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12
1.1 explore and describe similarities and differences in the ways groups, societies, and cultures address similar human needs and concerns; 1.1 compare similarities and differences in the ways selected groups, societies, and cultures meet human needs and concerns; 1.1 analyze and explain the ways groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns;
1.2 give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspective and frames of reference; 1.2 explain how information and experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference; 1.2 predict how data and experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspective and frames of reference;
1.3 understand ways in which language, stories, folk tales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture; 1.3 explain and given examples of how language, literature, the arts, architecture, other artifacts, traditions, beliefs, values, and behaviors contribute to the development and transmission of culture; 1.3 apply an understanding of culture as an integrated whole that explains the functions and interactions of language, literature, the arts, traditions, beliefs and values, and behavior patterns;
1.4 compare ways in which people from different cultures think about and deal with their physical environment and social conditions; 1.4 explain why selected individuals and groups respond differently to their physical and social environments and/or changes to them on the basis of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs; 1.4 compare and analyze societal patterns for preserving and transmitting culture while adapting to environmental or social change;
1.5 give examples and describe the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups. 1.5 articulate the implications of cultural diversity, as well as cohesion, within and across groups. 1.5 demonstrate the value of cultural diversity, as well as cohesion, within and across groups;
1.6 interpret patterns of behavior reflecting values and attitudes that contribute or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding;
1.7 construct reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues;
1.8 explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems
Content Standard 2
Students understand people, places, global connections, and the human-environment interactions as they create their spatial views and geographic perspective of the world and the relationships among science, technology and society

The Summit School District social studies curriculum includes experiences that provide for the students of people, places, environments, technologies, global connection and interdependence, so that students can:

Grades K-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12
2.1 construct and use mental maps of locales, regions, and/or the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape 2.1 elaborate mental maps and selected locales, regions, and the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape; 2.1 refine mental maps of locales, regions, and the world that demonstrate understanding of relative location, direction, size, and shape;
2.2 use and distinguish various representations of the earth, such as maps, globes, and photographs; 2.2 create, interpret, use, and distinguish various representation of the earth, such as maps, globes, and photographs; 2.2 create, interpret, use, and synthesize various representation of the earth, such as maps, globes, and photographs;
2.3 use appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic tools such as atlases, data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, and maps to generate manipulate, and interpret information; 2.3 use appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic tools such as aerial photographs, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), map projections, and cartography to generate, manipulate, and interpret information such as atlases, data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, and maps; 2.3 use appropriate resources, data sources, and geographic tools such as aerial photographs, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), map projections, and cartography to generate, manipulate, and interpret information such as atlases, data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, and maps;
2.4 estimate distance and calculate scale; 2.4 estimate distance, calculate scale, and distinguish other geographic relationships such as population density and spatial distribution patterns; 2.4 calculate distance, scale, area, and density, and distinguish spatial distribution patterns;
2.5 locate and distinguish among varying landforms and geographic features such as mountains, plateaus, islands, and oceans; 2.5 locate and describe varying landforms and geographic features, such as mountains, plateaus, islands, rain forests, deserts, and oceans, and explain their relationships with the ecosystem; 2.5 describe, differentiate, and explain the relationships among various regional and global patterns of geographic phenomena such as landforms, soils, climate, vegetation, natural resources, and populations;
2.6 describe and speculate about physical system changes, such as seasons, climate and weather, and water cycle; 2.6 describe physical system changes such as seasons, climate and weather, and the water cycle and identify geographic patterns associated with them; 2.6 use knowledge of physical system changes such as seasons, climate and weather, and the water cycle to explain geographic phenomena;
2.7 describe how people create places that reflect ideas, personality, culture, and want and needs as they design homes, playgrounds, classrooms, and the like; 2.7 describe how people create places that reflect cultural values and ideals as they build neighborhoods, parks, shopping centers, and the like; 2.7 describe and compare how people create place that reflect culture, human needs, government policy, and current values and ideals they design and build specialized buildings, neighborhoods, shopping center, urban centers, industrial parks, and the like;
2.8 examine the interaction of human beings and their physical environment, the use of land, building of cities, and ecosystem changes in selected locales and regions; 2.8 examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as land use, settlement patterns, cultural transmission of customs and ideas, and ecosystem changes; 2.8 examine, interpret, and analyze physical and cultural patterns and their interactions, such as land use, settlement patterns, cultural transmission of customs and ideas, and ecosystem changes;
2.9 explore ways that the earth’s physical features have changed over time in the local region and beyond, and how these changes may be connected to one another; 2.9 describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings; 2.9 describe and assess ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings;
2.10 observe and speculate about social and economic effects of environmental changes and crises resulting from phenomena such as floods, storms and drought; 2.10 observe and speculate about social and economic effects of environmental changes and crises resulting from phenomena such as floods, storms, and drought; 2.10 analyze and evaluated social and economic effects of environmental changes and crises resulting from phenomena such as floods, storms, and drought;
2.11 consider existing uses and propose and evaluate alternative uses of resources and land in home, school, community, the region and beyond; 2.11 propose, compare, and evaluate alternative uses of land and resources in communities, regions, nations, and the world; 2.11 propose compare, and evaluate alternative policies for the use of land and other resources in communities, regions, nations, and the world;
2.12 identify and describe examples in which science and technology have changed the lives of people, such as in homemaking, childcare, work, transportation, and communications; 2.12 examine and describe the influence of culture on scientific and technological choices and advancement, such as in transportation, medicine, and war; 2.12 identify and describe both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology, and society in a variety of cultural settings;
2.13 show examples in which science and technology have led to changes in the physical environment, such as the building of dams and levees, offshore oil drilling, medicine from rain forests, and loss of rain forests due to extraction of resources or alternative uses; 2.13 show through specific examples how science and technology have changed people’s perceptions of the social and natural world, such as in their relationship to the land, animal life, family life, and economic needs, wants and security; 2.13 make judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society and our understanding of time, space, place, and human-environment interactions;
2.14 show instance in which changes in values, beliefs, and attitudes have resulted from new scientific and technological knowledge, such as conservation of resources and awareness of chemical harmful to life and the environment; 2.14 describe examples in which values, beliefs, and attitudes have been influenced by new scientific and technological knowledge, such as the invention of the printing press, conceptions of the universe, applications of atomic energy, and genetic discoveries; 2.14 analyze how science and technology influence the core values, beliefs, and attitudes of society, and how core values, beliefs, and attitudes of society shape scientific and technological change;
2.15 identify examples of laws and policies that govern scientific and technological applications, such as the Endangered Species Act and environmental protection policies; 2.15 explain the need for laws and policies to govern scientific and technological applications, such as in the safety and well-being of workers and consumers and the regulation of utilities, radio, and television; 2.15 evaluate various policies that have been proposed as ways of dealing with social changes resulting from new technologies, such as genetically engineered plants and animals;
2.16 suggest ways to monitor science and technology in order to protect the physical environment, individual rights, and the common good; 2.16 seek reasonable and ethical solutions to problems that arise when scientific advancements and social norms or values come into conflict; 2.16 recognize and interpret varied perspective about human societies and the physical world using scientific knowledge, ethical standards, and technologies from diverse world cultures;
2.17 explore ways that language, art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements may facilitate global understanding or lead to misunderstanding; 2.17 describe instances in which language, art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding; 2.17 explain how language, art, music, belief systems, and other cultural elements can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding;
2.18 give examples of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals and/or groups, and nations; 2.18 analyze examples of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, and nations; 2.18 explain conditions and motivations that contributed to conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, societies, and nations;
2.19 explore the effects of changing technologies on the community; 2.19 describe and analyze the effects of changing technologies on the global community; 2.19 analyze and evaluate the effects of changing technologies on the global community;
2.20 explore causes, consequences, and possible solutions to persistent, contemporary, and emerging global issues, such as pollution and endangered species 2.20 explore the causes, consequences, and possible solution to persistent, contemporary, and emerging global issues, such as health, security, resource allocation economic development, and environmental quality; 2.20 analyze the causes, consequences, and possible solution to persistent contemporary, and emerging global issues, such as health, security, resource allocation, economic development, and environmental quality;
2.21 examine the relationships and tensions between personal wants and needs, global concerns, such as use of imported oil, land use and/or environmental protection; 2.21 describe and explain the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests, in such matters as territory, natural resources, trade, use of technology, and welfare of people; 2.21 analyze the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests, in such matters as territory, economic development, nuclear and other weapons, use of natural resources, and human rights concerns
2.22 investigate concerns, issues, stands, and conflicts related to universal human rights, such as the treatment of children religious groups, and the effects of war. 2.22 demonstrate understanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflicts related to universal human rights; 2.22 analyze or formulate policy statements demonstrating an understanding of concerns, standards, issues, and conflicts related to universal human rights
2.23 identify and describe the roles of international and multinational organizations. 2.23 describe and evaluate the role of international and multinational organization in the global arena;
2.24 illustrate how individual behaviors and decisions connect with global systems;
2.25 formulate strategies for influencing public discussions associated with technology-society issues (the greenhouse effect).

Content Standard 3
Students use the concept of Time, Continuity, and Change to develop an understanding of their historical roots, to locate themselves in time, and to discover their personal identity

The Summit School District social studies curriculum includes experiences that provide for the study of the ways human beings develop and view themselves in and over time, so that students can:

Grades K-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12
3.1 demonstrate an understanding that different people may describe the same event or situation in diverse ways, citing reasons for the differences in view; 3.1 demonstrate an understanding that different scholars may describe the same event or situation in different ways but must provide reasons or evidence for their views; 3.1 demonstrate that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructs that lead historians to be selective in the questions they ask and the evidence they use;
3.2 demonstrate an ability to use correct vocabulary associated with time such as past, present, future, and long ago; read and construct simple timelines; identify examples of change; and recognize examples of cause and effect relationships; 3.2 identify and use key concepts such as chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity; 3.2 apply key concepts such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict, and complexity to explain, analyze, and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity;
3.3 compare and contrast different stories or accounts about past events, people, places, or situations, including identifying how they contribute to our understand of the past; 3.3 identify and describe selected historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, such as the rise of civilization, the development of transportation systems, the growth and breakdown of colonial systems, and others; 3.3 identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, such as the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the rise of nation-states, and social, economic, and political revolutions;
3.4 identify and use various sources for reconstructing the past, such as documents, letters, diaries, maps, textbooks, photos, and others; 3.4 identify and use processes important to reconstructing and reinterpreting the past, such as using a variety of sources, providing, validating, and weighing evidence for claims, checking credibility of sources, and searching for causality; 3.4 systematically employ processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and reinterpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, and searching for causality;
3.5 understand that people in different times and places view the world differently; 3.5 develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts; 3.5 investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment;
3.6 use knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with elements of historical inquiry, to make informed decisions about public issues; 3.6 use knowledge of facts and concepts drawn from history, along with methods of historical inquiry, to inform decision-making about and action-taking on public issues 3.6 apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues
3.7 describe personal changes over time, such as those related to physical development and personal interests; 3.7 relate personal changed to social, cultural, and historical contexts; 3.7 articulate personal connections to time, place, and social/cultural systems;
3.8 describe personal connections to place -- especially place as associated with immediate surroundings; 3.8 describe personal connections to place -- as associated with community, nation, and world; 3.8 identify, describe, and express appreciation for the influences of various historical and contemporary cultures on an individual’s daily life;
3.9 describe the unique features of one’s nuclear and extended families; 3.9 describe the ways family, gender, ethnicity, nationality, and institutional affiliations contribute to personal identity; 3.9 describe the ways family, religion, gender, ethnicity, nationality, socioeconomic status, and other groups and cultural influences contribute to the development of a sense of self;
3.10 show how learning and physical development affect behavior; 3.10 related such factors as physical endowment and capabilities, learning, motivation personality, perception, and behavior to individual development; 3.10 apply concepts, methods, and theories about the study of human growth and development, such as physical endowment, learning, motivation, behavior, perception, and personality;
3.11 identify and describe ways family, groups, and/or community influence the individual’s daily life and personal choices; 3.11 identify and describe ways regional, ethnic, and national cultures influence individual’s daily lives; 3.11 examine the interactions of ethnic, national, or cultural influences in specific situation and events;
3.12 explore factors that contribute to one’s personal identity such as interests, capabilities, and perceptions; 3.12 identify and describe the influence of perception attitudes, values, and beliefs on personal identity; 3.12 analyze the role of perceptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs in the development of personal identity;
3.13 analyze a particular event to identify reasons individuals might respond to it in different ways; 3.13 identify and interpret examples of stereotyping, conformity, and altruism; 3.13 compare and evaluate the impact of stereotyping, conformity, acts of altruism, and other behaviors on individuals and groups;
3.14 work independently and cooperatively to accomplish goals. 3.14 work independently and cooperatively to accomplish goals. 3.14 work independently and cooperatively with groups and institutions to accomplish goals;
3.15 examine factors that contribute to and damage one’s mental health and analyze issues related to mental health and behavioral disorders.
Content Standard 4
Students understand the ways in which people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

The Summit School District social studies curriculum includes experiences that provide for the study of how people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, sot the students can:

Grades K-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12
4.1 give examples that show how scarcity and choice govern our economic decisions; 4.1 give and explain examples of ways that economic systems structure choices about how goods and service are to be produced and distributed; 4.1 explain how the scarcity of productive resources (human, capital, technological, and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed;
4.2 distinguish between needs and wants; 4.2 describe the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system; 4.2 analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives, and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system;
4.3 identify examples of private and public goods and services 4.3 explain the difference between private and public goods and services; 4.3 consider the costs and benefits to society of allocating goods and services through private and public sectors;
4.4 understand that various institutions make up economic systems (i.e. families, workers, banks, labor unions, government agencies, small businesses, and large corporations; 4.4 describe a range of examples of the various institution that make up economic systems such as households, business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations; 4.4 describe relationships among the various economic institutions that comprise economic systems such as households, business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, and corporations;
4.5 understand we depend upon workers with specialized jobs and the ways in which they contribute to the production and exchange of goods and services; 4.5 describe the role of specialization and exchange in the economic process; 4.5 analyze the role of specialization and exchange in economic processes;
4.6 describe the influence of incentives, values, traditions, and habits on economic decisions; 4.6 explain and illustrate how values and beliefs influence different economic decisions; 4.6 compare how values and beliefs influence economic decisions in different societies;
4.7 explain and demonstrate the role of money in everyday life; 4.7 differentiate among various forms of exchange and money; 4.7 compare basic economic systems according to how rules and procedures deal with demand, supply, prices, the role of government, banks, labor and labor unions, savings and investments, and capital;
4.8 describe the relationship of price to supply and demand; 4.8 compare basic economic systems according to who determines what is produced, distributed, and consumed; 4.8 apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluating historical contemporary social developments and issues;
4.9 use economic concepts such as supply, demand, and price to help explain events in the community and nation; 4.9 use economic concepts to help explain historical and current developments and issues in local, national, or global contexts; 4.9 distinguish between the domestic and global economic systems, and explain how the two interact;
4.10 apply knowledge of economic concepts in developing a response to a current local economic issue, such as how to reduce the flow of trash into a rapidly filling landfill. 4.10 use economic reasoning to compare different proposals for dealing with a contemporary social issues such as unemployment, acid rain, or high quality education. 4.10 apply knowledge of production, distribution, and consumption in the analysis of a public issue such as the allocation of health care or the consumption of energy, and devise an economic plan for accomplishing a socially desirable outcome related to that issues;
4.11 distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and the economy.

Content Standard 5
Students understand the historical development and structures of power, authority, governance, and institutions and their evolving function in contemporary U.S. society, as well as in other parts of the world, in order to develop civic ideals and practices of citizenship

The Summit School District social studies curriculum includes experiences that provide for the study of power, authority, and governance, the interaction of individuals, groups and institutions, and the ideals, principles, and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic, so that students can:

Grades K-5 Grades 6-8 Grades 9-12
5.1 examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class; 5.1 examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and status of the individual in relation to the general welfare; 5.1 examine persistent issues involving the rights, roles, and status of the individual in relation to the general welfare;
5.2 understand the purpose of government; 5.2 describe the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used, and justified; 6.2 explain the purpose of government and analyze how its powers are acquired, used, and justified;
5.3 give examples of how government does or does not provide for the needs and what of people, establish order and security, and manage conflict; 5.3 analyze and explain ideas and governmental mechanisms to meet needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, and establish order and security; 5.3 analyze and explain ideas and mechanisms to meet needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict, establish order and security, and balance competing conceptions of a just society;
5.4 recognize how groups and organization encourage unity and deal with diversity to maintain order and security; 5.4 describe the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security; 5.4 compare and analyze the ways nations and organizations respond to conflicts between forces of unity and forces of diversity;
5.5 distinguish among local, state, and national government and identify representatives leaders at these levels such as mayor, governor, and president; 5.5 identify and describe the basic features of the political system in the United States, and identify representative leaders from various levels and branches of government; 5.5 compare different political systems (their ideologies, structure, institutions, processes, and political cultures) with that of the U.S.,., and identify representative political leaders from selected historical and contemporary settings;
5.6 identify and describe factors that contribute to cooperation and cause disputes within and among groups and/or nations; 5.6 explain conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations; 5.6 explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from political science to the examination of persistent issues and social problems;
5.7 explore the role of technology in communication, transportation, information processing, weapons development, or other areas as it contributes to or help resolve conflicts; 5.7 describe and analyze the role of technology in communications, transportation, information processing, weapons development, or other areas it contributes to or helps resolve conflicts; 5.7 evaluate the role of technology in communications, transportation, information processing, weapons development, or other areas as it contributes to or helps resolve conflicts;
5.8 recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice; 5.8 explain and apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems; 5.8 explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from political science to the examination of persistent issues and social problems;
5.9 identify roles as learned behavior patterns in group situation such as student, family member, peer play, group member, or club member; 5.9 demonstrate an understanding of concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the interactions of individuals and social groups; 5.9 apply concepts such as role, status, and social class in describing the connections and interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in society;
5.10 give examples of and explain group and institutional influences such as religious beliefs, laws, and peer pressure, on people events, and elements of culture; 5.10 analyze group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of culture; 5.10 analyze group and institutional influences on people, events, and elements of culture in both historical and contemporary settings;
5.11 identify examples of institutions (i.e. schools, family, government etc.) and describe the interactions of people with institutions; 5.11 describe the various forms institutions take and the interactions of people with institutions; 5.11 describe the various forms institutions take, and explain how they develop and change over time;
5.12 identify and describe examples of tensions between and among individuals, groups, or institutions, and how belonging to more than one group can cause internal conflicts; 5.12 identify and analyze examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and group or institutional efforts to promote social conformity; 5.12 identify and analyze examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts used to promote social conformity by groups and institutions;
5.13 identify and describe examples of tensions between an individual’s beliefs and government policies and laws; 5.13 identify and describe examples of tensions between belief systems and government policies and laws; 5.13 describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical movements;
5.14 give examples of the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change; 5.14 describe the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change; 5.14 evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change;
5.15 show how groups and institutions work to meet individual needs, promote the common good, and identify examples of where they fail to do so; 5.15 apply knowledge of how groups and institutions work to meet individual needs and promote the common good; 5.15 analyze the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings;
5.16 identify key ideals of the United States’ democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rules of law, and discuss the applications in specific situations; 5.16 examine the origins and continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law; 5.16 explain the origins and interpret the continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, and the rule of law;
5.17 identify examples of rights and responsibilities of citizens; 5.17 identify and interpret sources and examples of the rights and responsibilities of citizens; 5.17 identify, analyze, interpret, and evaluate sources and examples of citizens’ right and responsibilities;
5.18 locate, access, organize, and/or apply information about an issue of public concern from multiple points of view; 5.18 locate, access, analyze, organize, and apply information about selected public issues - recognizing and explaining multiple points of view; 5.18 locate, access, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate, and apply information about selected public issues - identifying, describing, and evaluating multiples points of view;
5.19 identify and practice selected forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic; 5.19 practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic; 5.19 practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizens in a democratic republic;
5.20 explain actions citizens can take to influence public policy decisions; 5.20 explain and analyze various forms of citizen actions that influence public policy decisions; 5.20 analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy;
5.21 identify and explain the role of formal and informal political actors influencing and shaping public policy and decision-making; 5.21 analyze a variety of public policies and issues from the perspective of formal and informal political actors;
5.22 examine the influence of public opinion on personal decision-making and government policy on public issues; 5.22 analyze the influence of diverse forms of public opinion on the development of public policy and decision-making; 5.22 evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion in influencing and shaping public policy development and decision-making;
5.23 explain how policies and citizens behaviors may or may not reflect the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government; 5.23 analyze the effectiveness of selected public policies and citizen behaviors in realizing the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government; 5.23 evaluate the degree to which public policies and citizen behaviors reflect or foster the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government;
5.24 describe how public policies are used to address issues of public concern; 5.24 explain the relationship between policy statements and action plans used to address issues of public concerns; 5.24 construct a policy statement and an action plan to achieve one or more goals related to an issue of public concern;
5.25 recognize and interpret how the “common good’ can be strengthened through various forms of citizen action. 5.25 examine strategies designed to strengthen the “common good,’ which consider a range of options for citizen action; 5.25 participate in activities to strengthen the “common good,’ based upon careful evaluation of possible options for citizen actions;
5.26 give examples and explain how governments attempt to achieve their stated ideals at home and abroad. 5.26 evaluate the extent to which governments achieve their state ideals and policies at home and abroad;
5.27 prepare a public policy paper and present and defend it before an appropriate forum in school or the community;
5.28 explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from behavioral science in the examination of persistent issues and social problems.